One of the oldest and most widespread methods of divining the future, both among primitive people and among several of the civilizations of antiquity, was the reading of omens in the signs noted on the liver of the animal offered as a sacrifice to some deity.
The liver being regarded as the seat of the blood, it was a natural and short step to identify the liver with the soul as well as with the seat of life, and therefore as the centre of all manifestations of vitality and activity.
It is to the collections formed by these baru-priests as a guidance for themselves and as a basis of instruction for those in training for the priesthood that we owe our knowledge of the parts of the liver to which particular attention was directed, of the signs noted, and of the principles guiding the interpretation of the signs.
Among the Greeks and Romans likewise it was the liver that continued throughout all periods to play the chief role in divination through the sacrificial animal.
§ 186), furnishing the date (274 B.C.) when the examination of the heart was for the first time introduced by the side of the liver as a means of divining the future, while the lungs are not mentioned till we reach the days of Cicero (de Divinatione, i.
We are justified in concluding, therefore, that among the Greeks and Romans likewise the examination of the liver was the basis of divination in the case of the sacrificial animal.
It is well known that the Romans borrowed their methods of hepatoscopy from the Etruscans, and, apart from the direct evidence for this in Latin writings, we have, in the case of the bronze model of a liver found near Piacenza in 1877, and of Etruscan origin, the unmistakable proof that among the Etruscans the examination of the liver was the basis of animal divination.
The figure of an Etruscan augur holding a liver in his hand as his trade-mark (Korte, ib.
Xiv.), which point in the same direction, and indicate that the model of the liver was used as an object lesson to illustrate the method of divination through the liver.
4, 10, 15, &c.) to burn the processus pyramidalis of the liver, which played a particularly significant role in hepatoscopy, calls for special mention.
It but remains to call attention to the fact that the earlier view of the liver as the seat of the soul gave way among many ancient nations to the theory which, reflecting the growth of anatomical knowledge, assigned that function to the heart, while, with the further change which led to placing the seat of soul-life in the brain, an attempt was made to partition the various functions of manifestations of personality among the three organs, brain, heart and liver, the intellectual activity being assigned to the first-named; the higher emotions, as love and courage, to the second; while the liver, once the master of the entire domain of soul-life as understood in antiquity, was degraded to serve as the seat of the lower emotions, such as jealousy, anger and the like.
In the Disconectae the coenosarc forms a spongy mass, the " centradenia," which is partly hepatic in function, forming the socalled liver, and partly excretory.
The malarial cachexia that follows definite attacks of ague consists in a state of ill-defined suffering, associated with a sallow skin, enlarged spleen and liver, and sometimes.
In chronic cases the eventual effects are anaemia, melanosis, enlargement of the spleen and liver, and general cachexia.
Triacetin, C 3 H 5 (O C 2 H 3 0) 3, is apparently contained in cod-liver oil.
Glycerin is useless as a food and is not in any sense a substitute for cod-liver oil.
Much of the grain was never harvested, whilst owing mainly to the excessive floods there commenced an outbreak of liver-rot in sheep, due to the ravages of the fluke parasite.
This was chiefly attributable to the ravages of the liver fluke which began in the disastrously wet season of 1879.
The chief interest of the place centres in its brine springs which are largely impregnated with carbonic acid gas and oxide of iron, and are efficacious in chronic catarrh of the respiratory organs, in liver and stomach disorders and women's diseases.
Anisopleura) extends between the liver and the integument of the visceral dome very widely.
It also bends round the liver as shown FIG.
The odontophore is powerfully developed; the radular sac is extraordinarily long, lying coiled in a space between the mass of the liver and the muscular foot.
The oesophagus leads into a remarkable stomach, plaited like the manyplies of a sheep, and after this the intestine takes a very large number of turns embedded in the yellow liver, until at last it passes between the two renal sacs to the anal papilla.
It can be traced back to the intestine i near the surface of the visceral hump, and it is found that the apex of the coil formed by the hump is occupied by the liver h and the stomach v.
A crop-like dilatation of the gut and a recurved intestine, embedded in the compact yellowish-brown liver, the ducts of which open into it, form the rest of the digestive tract and occupy a large bulk of the visceral hump. The buccal region presents a pair of shelly jaws placed laterally upon the lips, and a wide range of variation in the form of the denticles of the lingual ribbon or radula.
As so great a part of the whole surface of the kidney lies adjacent to external surfaces of the body, the remaining part which faces the internal organs is small; it consists of the left part of the under surface; it is level with the floor of the pericardium, and lies over the globular mass formed by the liver and convoluted intestine.
The liver opens by two ducts into the digestive FIG.
(Lancoil of intestine and liver, a little to the kester.) left side.
(From Owen.) of the liver or great digestive gland is found in the scorpions, where the axial portion of the digestive canal is short and straight, and the lateral ducts sufficiently wide to admit food into the ramifications of the gland there to be digested; whilst in the spiders the gland is reduced to a series of simple caeca.
Liver wholly or partially contained in the visceral mass.
Liver not ramified in the integuments.
From this we pass to a stomach and a coil of intestine embedded in the lobes of a voluminous liver; a caecum of large size is given off near the commencement of the intestine.
Among the reasons which led people to identify the liver with the very source of life, and hence as the seat of all affections and emotions, including what to us are intellectual functions, we may name the bloody appearance of that organ.
Filled with blood, it was natural to regard it as the seat of the blood, and as a matter of fact one-sixth of the entire blood of man is in the liver, while in the case of some animals the proportion is even larger.
The one is that the animal sacrificed was looked upon as a deity, and that, therefore, the liver represented the soul of the god; the other theory is that the deity in accepting the sacrifice identified himself with the animal, and that, therefore, the liver as the soul of the animal was the counterpart of the soul of the god.
The theory underlying hepatoscopy therefore consists of these two factors: the belief (I) that the liver is the seat of life, or, to put it more succinctly, what was currently regarded as the soul of the animal; and (2) that the liver of the sacrificial animal, by virtue of its acceptance on the part of the god, took on the same character as the soul of the god to whom it was offered.
Hence, when one approached a deity with an inquiry as to the outcome of some undertaking, the reading of the signs on the liver afforded a direct means of determining the course of future events, which was, according to current beliefs, in the control of the gods.
The inspection of the liver for purposes of divination led to the study of the anatomy of the liver, and there are indeed good reasons for believing that hepatoscopy represents the startingpoint for the study of animal anatomy in general.
We find in the Babylonian-Assyrian omen-texts special designations for the three main lobes of the sheep's liver - the lobus dexter, the lobus sinister and the lobus caudatus; the first-named being called "the right wing of the liver," the second "the left wing of the liver," and the third "the middle of the liver."
The two appendixes attached to the upper lobe or lobus pyramidalis, and known in modern nomenclature as processus pyramidalis and processus papillaris, were described respectively as the "finger" of the liver and as the "offshoot."
The gall-bladder, appropriately designated as "the bitter," was regarded as a part of the liver, and the cystic duct (compared, apparently, to a "penis") to which it is joined, as well as the hepatic duct (pictured as an "outlet") and the ductus choleductus (described as a "yoke"), all had their special designations.
Lastly, to pass over unnecessary details, the markings of various kinds to be observed on the lobes of the livers of freshly-slaughtered animals, which are due mainly to the traces left by the subsidiary hepatic ducts and hepatic veins on the liver surface, were described as "holes," "paths," "clubs" and the like.