'Results (excepting alcohol) are expressed in grams per litre, i.e.
In general analytical work the standard solution contains the equivalent weight of the substance in grammes dissolved in a litre of water.
Next 5 cc. of glacial acetic acid are added, the solution cooled, and 5 cc. of a solution of potassium iodide (300 grammes to the litre) and the standard solution of sodium thiosulphate run in from a burette until the brown colour has nearly disappeared.
The litre is equal to a cubic decimetre.
This was followed by the law of the 10th of December 1799 fixing definitely the value of the metre and of the kilogramme, or weight of a litre of water, and the new system became compulsory in 180r.
4282 t +0 0074527 t20.0000-5494 t3 Cl(o 2149 - o o07117 / 2 +0.0000931 13) In the case of ocean water with a salinity of 35 per mille, this gives for saturation with atmospheric gases in cc. per litre: The reduction of the absorption of gas by rise of temperature is thus seen to be considerable.
5 cc. per litre at o C. while as a matter of fact the amount absorbed approaches 50 cc. The form of combination is unstable and apparently variable, so that the quantities of free carbonic acid, bicarbonate and normal carbonate are liable to alter.
The alkalinity of North Atlantic water of 35 per mille salinity is 26.86 cc. per litre, corresponding to a total amount of carbonic acid of 49 07 cc. According to the researches of August Krogh,' the alkalinity is greatly increased by the admixture of land water.
(b) In determinations of volume which do not admit of a high degree of accuracy the cubic decimetre can be taken as equivalent to the litre; and in these determinations expressions of volumes based on the cube of the unit of linear measure can be substituted for expressions based on the litre as defined above.
In the United Kingdom the metric standard of capacity is the litre, represented (Order in Council, 19th May 1890) by the capacity of a hollow cylindrical brass measure whose internal diameter is equal to one-half its height, and which at 0° C., when filled to the brim, contains one kg.
In such definition an attempt has been made to avoid former confusion of expression as to capacity, cubic measure, and volume; the litre being recognized as a measure of capacity holding a given weight of water.
-- 1000 (litre), 500, 200, 100, 50, 20, 10, 5, 2 cubic centimetres, 1 c.c. or 1000 cubic millimetres.
A quantity of gas measured by its molecular weight in grammes when confined in a volume of one litre exerts a pressure of 22.2 atmospheres, and thus the osmotic pressure of a dilute solution divided by its concentration in gramme-molecules per litre has a corresponding value.
With the fall of water there is an increase in the specific gravity, which in 1850 was 1.17, and in September 1901 was I 179; in 1850 the proportion of solids by weight was 22.282%, in September 1901 it was 25.221; at the earlier of these dates the solids in a litre of water weighed 260.69 grams, at the latter date 302'122 grams. The exact cause of this cyclic variation is unknown: the low level of 1906 is usually regarded as the result of extensive irrigation and ploughing in the surrounding country, which have robbed the lake, in part, of its normal supply of water.
The imperial British pint = 57 of a litre, 34.66 cub.
The equivalent of the litre in gallons may also be derived as follows: Let P(1 - p/d) = P1(1 - p/d1), where P is the weight of the water contained in the gallon when weighed in London -- g at London = g at Paris (45°) x 1.000577.
His philosophical views, which were identical with those of Crates (q.v.), he expounded by precept and example with great success, and had among his pupils 00 of the weight of a litre of Menippus of Sinope.
The litre is the standard liquid measure.
The theory of the system is that the metre is a 1000-1000Y Part of a quandrant of the earth through Paris; the litre or unit of volume is a cube ofmetre side; the gramme or unit of weight is (nominally) 10 water at 4° C. The idea of adopting scientific measurements had been suggested as early as the 17th century, particularly by the astronomer Jean Picard (1620-1682), who proposed to take as a unit the length of a pendulum beating one second at sealevel, at a latitude of 45°.
Mineral springs occur containing a very high percentage (3.245 grams per litre) of common salt; and in 1893 a company was formed for working them.
The United States standard pint = 47 of a litre, 28'i cub.
Regist?ation (enregistrement) duties are charged on the transfer of property in the way of business (fi titre onreux); on changes in ownership effected in the way of donation or succession (a litre gratuit), and 011 a variety of other transactions which must be registered according to law.
The total quantity of liquid employed need not in general exceed half a litre if a sufficiently delicate thermometer is available.
Thus a normal solution of sodium carbonate contains 53 grammes per litre, of sodium hydrate 40 grammes, of hydrochloric acid 36.5 grammes, and so on.
Carbonic acid is the most abundant and it may be contained in sea-water in the proportion of about 50 milligrammes per litre (that is, 50 per million).
Perfectly pure distilled sea-water dissociates, to an infinitesimal degree, into hydrogen (H) and hydroxyl (HO) ions, so that one litre of such water contains 1 X 10 7, or 1 part of a gram-molecule of either hydr010,000,000 gen or hydroxyl (a gramme-molecule of hydrogen is 2 grammes, or of hydroxyl 17 grammes).
The theoretical value for the depression of the freezing point of a dilute solution per gramme-equivalent of solute per litre is 1857° C. Completely ionized solutions of salts with two ions should give double this number or 3.714°, while electrolytes with three ions should have a value of 5.57°.
Thus a strip of zinc plunged into a solution of silver sulphate, containing not more than 0.03 gramme of silver in the litre, becomes covered with a flocculent precipitate which is a true alloy of silver and zinc, and in the same way, when copper is precipitated from its sulphate by zinc, the alloy formed is brass.
(2) A mixture of loo litres of spirit, 14 litres of the naphtha-pyridine mixture described above, 4 litre of methyl violet solution, and from 2 to 20 litres of benzol; this fluid is limited to combustion in motors and agricultural engines.
The "general" mixture consists of Too litres of spirit, and 5 litres of wood spirit or 2 litre of pyridine.
These consist of ioo litres of spirit mixed with either ro litres of sulphuric ether, or r litre of benzol, or 2 litre of turpentine, or ï¿½025 litre of animal oil.
The formulae show the number of cubic centimetres of gas absorbed by i litre of sea-water; t indicates the temperature in degrees centigrade and CI the salinity as shown by the amount of chlorine per mille: 02 = 10.291 - 0 .
A temperature of 40.1 ° F., the carbonic acid amounts to 51 J5 cc. per litre, and the oxygen only to 2.19 cc. Vegetable plankton in sunlight can reverse this process, assimilating the carbon of the carbonic acid and restoring the oxygen to solution, as was proved by Martin Knudsen and Ostenfeld in the case of diatoms. Little is known as yet of the distribution of carbonic acid in the oceans, but the amount present seems to increase with the salinity as shown by the four observations quoted: Water from Gulf of Finland of 3.2 per mille salinity =17.2 cc. C02 Western Baltic of 14.2 North Atlantic of .0, , 49'0 Eastern Mediter ranean of 39.o, , =53'0, , Unfortunately the very numerous determinations of carbonic acid made by J.
A standard sodium hydrate solution can be prepared by dissolving 42 grammes of sodium hydrate, making up to a litre, and diluting until one cubic centimetre is exactly equivalent to one cubic centimetre of the sulphuric acid.
Calcium hydride or hydrolite, prepared by passing hydrogen over heated calcium, decomposes water similarly, r gram giving 1 litre of gas; it has been proposed as a commercial source (Prats Aymerich, Abst.
IroXb, many) was chosen for compounds like butylene, C 4 H 8, and ethylene, C 2 H 4, corresponding to the same composition in weight but differing in molecular formula, and having different densities in gas or vapour, a litre of butylene and isobutylene weighing, for instance, under ordinary temperature and pressure, about 2.5 gr., ethylene only one-half as much, since density is proportional to molecular weight.
Another interesting fact ascertained by the same expedition is that the amount of oxygen contained in the water decreases rapidly with the depth: off Derbent in the middle section of the sea the amount diminished from 5.6 cc. per litre at a depth of 100 metres (33 o ft.) to 0.3 2 cc. per litre at a depth of 700 metres (say 2300 ft.).
It is held that an excess of the latter is undesirable in wine, but unless the quantity appreciably exceeds two grams per litre, na reasonable objection can be raised.
(a) What would be the dimensions of a cubical vessel which would exactly hold 125 litres; a litre being a cubic decimetre ?
According to Michel and Kraft, one litre of cold saturated solution of tin crystals weighs 1827 grammes and contains 1333 grammes of SnCl 2.