An order of the Lily, with a fleur-de-lis for badge, was established in the Roman states by Pope Paul III.
South of the central court were found parts of a relief in the same material, showing a personage with a fleur-de-lis crown and collar.
4.-Marble Head Duro, Representing Male Fosso From Amorgos (Ash With Fleur-De-Lis Collar.
The conventional fleur-de-lis, as Littre says, represents very imperfectly three flowers of the white lily (Lilium) joined together, the central one erect, and each of the other two curving outwards.
The fleur-de-lis is a common device in ancient decoration, notably in India and in Egypt,where it was the symbol of life and resurrection, the attribute of the god Horus.
It is uncertain whether the conventional fleur-de-lis was originally meant to represent the lily or white iris - the flower-de-luce of Shakespeare - or an arrow-head, a spear-head, an amulet fastened on date-palms to ward off the evil eye, &c. In Roman and early Gothic architecture the fleur-de-lis is a frequent sculptured ornament.
As early as I120 three fleurs-de-lis were sculptured on the capitals of the Chapelle Saint-Aignan at Paris.
The fleur-de-lis was first definitely connected with the French monarchy in an ordonnance of Louis le Jeune (c. 1147), and was first figured on a seal of Philip Augustus in 1180.
The use of the fleur-de-lis in heraldry dates from the 12th century, soon after which period it became a very common charge in France, England and Germany, where every gentleman of coat-armour desired to adorn his shield Middle Ages.
Of France reduced the number of fleurs-de-lis to three - in honour of the Trinity - and the kings of France thereafter bore d'azur, d trois fleurs de lis d'or.
Tradition soon attributed the origin of the fleur-de-lis to Clovis, the founder of the Frankish monarchy, and explained that it represented the lily given to him by an angel at his baptism.
Probably there was as much foundation for this legend as for the more rationalistic explanation of William Newton (Display of Heraldry, p. 145), that the fleur-de-lis was the figure of a reed or flag in blossom, used instead of a sceptre at the proclamation of the Frankish kings.
Whatever be the true origin of the fleur-de-lis as a conventional decoration, it is demonstrably far older than the Frankish monarchy, and history does not record the reason of its adoption by the royal house of France, from which it passed into common use as an heraldic charge in most European countries.
In 1816, in memory of the silver fleurs-de-lis which the comte d'Artois had given to the troops in 1814 as decorations; it was abolished by the revolution of 1830.
The north point is marked with a fleur de lis, and the principal points, N.E., E., S.E., &c., with their respective names, whilst the intermediate points in the figure have also their names engraved for present information.
The north point, indicated in some of the oldest compass cards with a broad arrow-head or a spear, as well as with a T for Tramontano, gradually developed by a combination of these, about 1492, into a fleur de lis, still universal.
Cowbridge (Pontyfon) and Ludchurch (Eglwys Llwyd), others are of direct external origin, as Bishopstone, Flemingstone, Butter Hill, Briton Ferry, Manselfield, &c. Names derived straight from an Anglo-Norman source are rare; Beaupre, Beaumaris, Beaufort, Fleur-de-Lis, Roche, may be cited as examples of such.
When, in 1154, Aquitaine passed to the English crown, this counterseal disappeared, and eventually in subsequent reigns a fleur-de-lis or the shield of arms of France took its place.
For the year 1300 some gold and silver spoons marked with the fleur-de-lis, the Paris mark, are mentioned.
The simple rampart enclosed a space called lis 1 which contained 1 The term rath was perhaps applied to the rampart, but both lis and rath are used to denote the whole structure.