It is estimated that Sardinia pays, in local and general, direct and indirect taxation of all kinds, 23,000,000 lire (920,000), a sum corresponding to 35.44 lire per head.
Ferdinand, Philip's son, who succeeded under Dutillot's regency in 1765, saw his states occupied by the revolutionary forces of France in 1796, and had to purchase his lifeinterest with 6,000,000 lire and 25 of the best paintings in Parma.
If the tiller receives as much as 45 lire per month, supplemented by other wages in kind, it is said to be boaria a salario; if the principal part of his remuneration is in kind, his contract is called boaria a spesa.
The minimum annual premium is six lire for an annuity of one lira per day at the age of sixty, and insurance against sickness.
Money order cards are very convenient and cheap (up to 10 lire for bc. short private message can be written on them.
For minor civil cases involving sums up to 100 lire (~4), giudici conciliator-i have also jurisdiction, while they may act as arbitrators up to any amount by request.
The pretori have penal jurisdiction concerning all misdemeanours (contravvenzioni) or offences (delitti) punishable by imprisonment not exceeding three months or by fine not exceeding 1000 lire (~4o).
In civil matters there is appeal from the giadice conciliatore to the pretore (who has jurisdiction up to a sum of 1500 lire =~6o), from the pretore to the civil tribunal, from the civil tribunal to the court of appeal, and from the court of appeal to the court of cassation.
I For example, wheat, the price of which was in 1902 26 lire pe cwt., pays a tax of 74 lire; sugar pays four times its wholesale val,ii in tax; coffee twice its wholesale value.
Currency.The lira (plural lire) of 100 centesimi (centimes) is equal in value to the French franc. The total coinage (exclusive of Eritrean currency) from the 1st of January 1862 to the end of 1907 was 1,104,667,116 lire (exclusive of recoinage), divided as follows: gold, 427,516,970 lire; silver, 570,097,025 lire; nickel, 23,417,000 lire; bronze, 83,636,121 lire.
The forced paper currency, instituted in 1866, was abolished in 1881, in which year were dissolved the Union of Banks of Issue created in 1874 to furnish to the state treasury a milliard of lire in notes, guaranteed collectively by the banks.
Part of the Union notes were redeemed, part replaced by 10 lire and 5 lire state notes, payable at sight in metallic legal tender by certain state banks.
These notes are of 50, 100, 500 and 1000 lire; while the state issues notes for 5, 10 and 25 lire, the currency of these at the end of October 1906 being 17,546,967; with a total guaraotee of 15,636,000 held against them.
The former qualifications for electorship in local government elections have been modified, and it is now sufficient to pay five lire annually in, direct taxes, five lire of certain communal taxes, or a certain rental (which varies according to the population of a commune), instead of being obliged to pay, as previously, at least five lire annually of direct taxes to the state.
The Italian local authorities, communes and provinces alike, have considerably increased their indebtedness since 1882, The ratio of communal and provincial debt per inhabitant has grown from 30.79 lire (~1, 4s.
71/8d.) to 4370 lire (ii, 14s.
Through Anglo-French mediation Piedmonts war indemnity was reduced from 230,000,000 to 75,000,000 lire, but the question of the amnesty remained.
The financial situation continued to be em iously embarrassing; deficit was piled on deficit, loan upon res fn, and the service of the debt rose from 9o,ooo,ooo lire in th 60 to 2?O,000,000 in 1864.
The Italian treasury at once honored all the papal drafts, and thus contributed a first instalment of the 3,225,000 lire per annum afterwards placed by Article 4 of the Law of Guarantees at the disposal of the Holy See.
Article 4 allotted the pontiff an annuity of 3,225,000 lire (~I29,ooo) for the maintenance of the Sacred College, the sacred palaces, the congregations, the Vatican chancery and the diplomatic service.
On the 12th of July 1871, Articles 268, 269 and 270 of the Italian Penal Code were so modified as to make ecclesiastics liable to imprisonment for periods varying from six months to five years, and to fines from 1000 to 3000 lire, for spoken or written attacks against the laws of the state, or for the fomentation of disorder.
On the 2gth of June 1881 the Chamber adopted a Franchise Reform Bill, which increased the electorate from oo,ooo to 2,000,000 by lowering the fiscal qualification from 40 to 19.80 lire in direct taxation, and by extending the suffrage to all persons who had passed through the two lower standards of the elementary schools, and practically to all persons able to read and write.
His engagement was for a salary of 75 lire (about X30) a month, a sum so large for that period as to mark conspicuously the high regard in which his art was held.
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He wrote, with papal approval, the letter requesting the Italians to occupy the Leonine city, and obtained from the Italians payment of the Peter's pence (5,000,000 lire) remaining in the papal exchequer, as well as 50,000 scudi - the first and only instalment of the Italian allowance (subsequently fixed by the Law of Guarantees, March 21, 1871) ever accepted by the Holy See.
They likewise received a ransom of 160,000 lire for their Pisan prisoners.
First, this symple creature hadde myche trauaile, with diuerse felawis and helperis, to gedere manie elde biblis, and othere doctouris, and comune glosis, and to make oo Latyn bible sumdel trewe; and thanne to studie it of the newe, the text with the glose, and othere doctouris, as he m13te gete, and speciali Lire on the elde testament, that helpide ful myche in this werk; the thridde tyme to counseile with elde gramv riens, and elde dyuynis, of harde wordis, and harde sentenci, , hou tho m13ten best be vndurstonden and translatid; the iiij tyme to translate as cleerli as he coude to the sentence, anr: to haue manie gode felawis and kunnynge at the correcting of th,2 translacioun.
JOACHIM DU BELLAY (c. 1522-1560), French poet and critic, member of the Pleiade, was born 1 at the château of La Turmeliere, not far from Lire, near Angers, being the son of Jean du Bellay, seigneur de Gonnor, cousin-german of the cardinal Jean du Bellay and of Guillaume du Bellay.
The boy died in 1553, and Joachim, who had up to this time borne the title of sieur de Lire, became seigneur of Gonnor.
NICOLAUS OF LYRA (c. 1265-1349), French commentator, was born in Lire, now Vieille-Lyre, in the department of Eure, Normandy.
Availed himself to the full of the (for him) convenient clauses of the Italian Law of Guarantees (May 13, 1871), while refusing the civil list of three and a quarter million lire provided for his use, and inhibiting Italian Catholics from participating in the elections to the House of Deputies (ne elettori eletti).
The system of extensive cultivation proper to the latifondi gives an annual average gross return of about 200 lire per hectare (£3, 4s.
The Austrian occupation lasted until 1827, having cost the state 310,000,000 lire; but in the meanwhile the Swiss Guard had been established as a further protection for autocracy, and the revolutionary outbreak at Bosco on the Cilento was suppressed with the usual cruelty.
For these services he was created duke of Gaeta by the king, and was assigned a pension of 10,000 lire by parliament.
In six years the work was completed in seventy-two volumes, and immediately achieved a general popularity; the publisher made a fortune out of it, and Cantu's royalties amounted, it is said, to 300,000 lire (12,000).
All taxes and customs dues must be paid in gold, and, owing to the small quantities issued from the Rumanian mint, foreign gold is current, especially French 20-franc pieces (equal at par to 20 lei), Turkish gold lire (22.70), Old Russian Imperials (20.60) and English sovereigns of (25.22).
Keller, H/storische Formenle lire der spaniscisen Sprache (Murrhardt, 1894); P. de Mugica, Gramdtica del castellano antiguo (Berlin, 1891); S.