The import trade shows the largest totals in foodstuffs, wines and liquors, textiles and raw materials for their manufacture, wood and its manufactures, iron and its manufactures, paper and cardboard, glass and ceramic wares.
Columbus is near the Ohio coal and iron-fields, and has an extensive trade in coal, but its largest industrial interests are in manufactures, among which the more important are foundry and machine-shop products (1905 value, $6,259,579); boots and shoes (1905 value, $5,425,087, being more than one-sixtieth of the total product value of the boot and shoe industry in the United States, and being an increase from $359,000 in 1890); patent medicines and compounds (1905 value, $3,214,096); carriages and wagons (1905 value, $2,197,960); malt liquors (1905 value, $2,133,955); iron and steel; regalia and society emblems; steam-railway cars, construction and repairing; and oleo-margarine.
Hexathionic acid, H 2 S 6 0 6, is probably present in the mother liquors from which potassium pentathionate is prepared.
Among the borough's manufactures are stoves and furnaces, malt liquors and silk.
Exports in 1904 were valued at £419,642, the principal items being agricultural products (oranges, lemons, carobs, almonds, grapes, valonia, &c.), value £153,858, olives and products of olives-(oil, soap, &c.), £134,788, and wines and liquors, £48,544.
Since 1909 the sale of intoxicating liquors has been prohibited by statute.
On the 26th of May 1908 the people of the state voted " against the manufacture and sale of intoxicating liquors " in the state; the prohibition act thus approved went into effect on the 1st of January 1909.
In the ordinary process of soap-making the glycerin remains dissolved in the aqueous liquors from which the soap is separated.
Other leading manufactures are malt liquors ($21,620,794 in 1905), railway rolling-stock consisting largely of cars ($21,428,227), men's clothing ($18,496,173), planing mill products ($17,725,711), carriages and wagons ($16,096,125), distilled liquors ($15,976,523), rubber and elastic goods ($15,963,603), furniture ($13,322,608), cigars and cigarettes ($13,241,230), agricultural implements ($12,891,197), women's clothing ($12,803582), lumber and timber products ($12,567,992), soap and candles.
Most of the automobiles are manufactured in Cleveland; most of the cash registers and calculating machines in Dayton; most of the rubber and elastic goods in Akron; nearly one-half of the liquors and about three-fourths of the men's clothing in Cincinnati.
In 1908 an act was passed providing for local option in regard to the sale of intoxicating liquors, by an election to be called an initiative petition, signed by at least 35% of the electors of a county.
The chief sources of the general revenue fund are taxes on real and personal property, on liquors and cigarettes, on corporations and on inheritances; in 1909 the net receipts for this fund were $8,043,257, the disbursements $9,103,301, and the cash balance at the end of the fiscal year $3,428,705.
Among the leading and more distinctive items were printing and publishing ($21,023,855 in 1905); sugar and molasses refining ($ 1 5,74 6, 547 in 1900; figures not published in 1905 because of the industry being in the hands of a single owner); men's clothing (in 1900, $8,609,475, in 1905, $11,246,004); women's clothing (in 1900, $3,258,483, in 1905, $5,705,470); boots and shoes (in 1900, $3,882,655, in 1905, $5,575,927); boot and shoe cut stock (in 1905, $5, 211, 445); malt liquors (in 1900, $7,518,668, in 1905, $6,715,215); confectionery (in 1900, $4,455,184, in 1905, $6,210,023); tobacco products (in 1900, $3,504,603, in 1905, $4,59 2, 698); pianos and organs ($3,670,771 in 1905); other musical instruments and materials (in 1905, $231,780); rubber and elastic goods (in 1900, $3,139,783, in 1905, $2,887,323); steam fittings and heating apparatus (in 1900, $2,876,327, in 1905, $3,354, 020); bottling, furniture, &c. Art tiles and pottery are manufactured in Chelsea.
It is a thriving manufacturing town, its chief industries being leather-making, yarn-spinning, cottonand linen-weaving, the manufactures of cigars, brushes, liquors and oil, and glueand soap-boiling.
The principal manufactures are hardware, foundry and machine shop products, ammunition and fire-arms (the Winchester Company), carriages and wagons, malt liquors, paper boxes and corsets.
On the 22nd of February 1763 a town meeting resolved to encourage colonial manufactures and to refrain from importing from England hats, clothing, leather, gold and silver lace, buttons, cheese, liquors, &c. Two years later Jared Ingersoll (1722-1781), who had been sent to England to protest against the Stamp Act, but had accepted'the office of Stamp Distributor on the advice of Benjamin Franklin, was forced to resign his office.
In 1905 the census reports did not include manufactures outside the actual city limits; the total value of the factory product of the city proper in 1905 was $11,573,720; besides slaughtering and packing the other manufactures in 1905 included men's factory-made clothing (valued at $1,556,655) flour and grist-mill products (valued at $683,464), saddlery and harness (valued at $524,918), confectionery ($437,096), malt liquors ($407,054), boots and shoes ($350,384) and farm implements.
Beer and distilled liquors are largely manufactured, and fine building stone is obtained from numerous quarries.
The only manufacturing industries of much importance are the preparation of sugar, coffee and tobacco for market, and the manufacture of cigars, cigarettes, straw hats, soap, matches, vermicelli, sash, doors, ice, distilled liquors and some machinery.
Other manufactures with a product value in 1905 of between $4,000,000 and $1,000,000 were: bags (not paper); foundry and machine-shop products; planing-mill products; railway cars, construction and repairs; malt liquors; men's clothing; cooperage; food preparations; roasted and ground coffee and spice; fertilizers; cigars and cigarettes; cotton goods; and manufactured ice.
This was met in a very large measure by deposits of natural nitre and the products of artificial nitrieres, whilst additional supplies are available in the ammoniacal liquors of the gas-manufacturer, &c. The possible failure of the nitre deposits led to attempts to convert atmospheric nitrogen into manures by processes permitting economic success.
Other manufactures of importance are butter, cheese and condensed milk, packed meats and other slaughter-house products, steam railway cars, foundry and machine-shop products, linseed oil, malt liquors, planing-mill products, sash, doors and blinds, boots and shoes, and agricultural implements.
The sale of intoxicating liquors is for the most part regulated by licences, but the granting of licences may be prohibited within any town or incorporated village by its legal voters, and the question must be submitted to popular vote upon the request of ten legal voters.
The mother liquors are concentrated, and the double salt of composition 2KF CbOF 3 H 2 O, which separates, is decomposed by sulphuric acid, or by continued boiling with water (C. Marignac; see also G.
By all real estate deeds the sale of intoxicating liquors is for ever prohibited in the city; and an act of the state legislature in 1909 prohibited the sale of intoxicating liquor within r z m.
Machinery, provisions, largely in the form of tinned and otherwise preserved food, and liquors, clothing, textiles and hardware, chemicals and dynamite, iron and steel work and timber, and jewelry are the chief items in the imports.
When heated to about 200° it yields a brown amorphous substance, named caramel, used in colouring liquors, &c. Concentrated sulphuric acid gives a black carbonaceous mass; boiling nitric acid oxidizes it to d-saccharic, tartaric and oxalic acids; and when heated to 160° with acetic anhydride an octa-acetyl ester is produced.
In former days, when refining sugar or " sugar baking " was supposed to be a mystery only understood by a few of the initiated, there was a place in the refinery called the " secret room," and this name is still used in some refineries, where, however, it applies not to any room, but to a small copper cistern, constructed with five or six or more divisions or small canals, into which all the charcoal cisterns discharge their liquors by pipes led up from them to the top of the cistern.
The filtered liquors, being collected in the various service tanks according to their qualities, are drawn up into the vacuum pans and boiled to crystals.
The mother liquors used to be thrown away, but are now utilized for the extraction of their iodine.
Other important manufactures are iron and steel, slaughtering and meat-packing products, boots and shoes, cigars, furniture, men's clothing, hosiery and knit goods, jute and jute goods, linen-thread, malt liquors, brick, cement, barbed wire, wire nails and planing-mill products.
Other important products were: men's clothing ($2,943,214); foundry and machineshop products ($1,607,258); steam fittings and heating apparatus ($1,010,755); malt liquors ($933,278); and lumber products ($869,000).
Its most distinctive manufactures are paper and wood pulp; more valuable are foundry and machine shop products; other manufactures are safes, malt liquors, flour, woollens, Corliss engines, carriages and wagons and agricultural implements.
In addition to cash registers, the city's manufactured products include agricultural implements, clay-working machinery, cotton-seed and linseed oil machinery, filters, turbines, railway cars (the large Barney-Smith car works employed 1800 men in 1905), carriages and wagons, sewingmachines (the Davis Sewing Machine Co.), automobiles, clothing, flour, malt liquors, paper, furniture, tobacco and soap. The total value of the manufactured product, under the "factory system," was $31,015,293 in 1900 and $39,596,773 in 1905.
It is obvious that, with suitable methods and apparatus, the electrolysis of alkaline chlorides may be made to yield chlorine, hypochlorites (bleaching liquors), chlorates or caustic alkali, but that great care must be exercised if any of these products is to be obtained pure and with economy.
Hermite, which consisted in the production of bleach-liquors by the electrolysis (according to the 1st edition of the 1884 patent) of magnesium or calcium chloride between platinum anodes carried in wooden frames, and zinc cathodes.
Kellner, who in 1886 patented the use of cathode (caustic soda) and anode (chlorine) liquors in the manufacture of cellulose from wood-fibre, and has since evolved many similar processes, has produced an apparatus that has been largely used.
Use has been made of electrolysis in tanning operations, the current being passed through the tan-liquors containing the hides.
The liquors are run off from the vats to the electrolysing baths or precipitating tanks, and the leached ores are removed by means of doors in the sides of the vats into wagons.
In the process employed at the Worcester Works in the Transvaal, the liquors, containing about 150 grains of gold per ton and from 0.08 to o 01% of cyanide, are treated in rectangular vats in which is placed a series of iron and leaden plates at intervals of 1 in.
In British units, especially in connexion with the statement of relative densities of alcoholic liquors for Inland Revenue purposes, comparison is made with water at 62° F.
The values of other products in 1905 were as follows: slaughtering and meat packing (wholesale), $15,620,931; lumber and timber products (which employed the largest average number of wage-earners-13,332, or 27.2 per cent.), $16,278,240; cars and general shop construction and repairs by steam railway companies, $10,472,742; printing and publishing, $7,782,247; foundry and machine shop products, 1905, $4,952,827; malt liquors, $4,153,938; saddlery and harness, 1905, $3,251,525.
In 1882 an amendment to the constitution was passed prohibiting the manufacture and the sale of intoxicating liquors within the state.
But attempts to execute this were so unsuccessful that it has been succeeded by a law imposing what is known as the "mulct tax," which requires the payment of $600 in quarterly instalments for a licence to sell such liquors and places a lien for the whole amount on the real property in use for the business.
Franklin's advocacy of vegetarianism, of sparing and simple diet, and of temperance in the use of liquors, and of proper ventilation has already been referred to.
Revenue is raised by taxes on imports and exports, on licences for the sale of land and spirituous liquors, and for wood-cutting, by harbour and other dues, and a hut tax on natives.
The leading manufacturing industries in 1905, with the product-value of each in this year, were slaughtering and meat-packing ($4,040,162), foundry and machine shop work ($3,146,914), flour and grist milling ($ 2, 79 8, 74 0), lumber manufacturing and planing ($2,519,081), printing and publishing (newspapers and periodicals, $2,097,339 and book and job printing, $1,278,841), car construction and repairing ($1,549,836) - in 1910 there were railway shops here of the Southern Pacific, Pacific Electric, Los Angeles Street, Salt Lake and Santa Fe railways - and the manufacture of confectionery ($953,915), furniture ($879,910) and malt liquors ($789,393).
In 1905 the total value of the factory product of San Jose was $6,388,445 (94.1% more than in 1900); nearly onehalf ($3,039,803) was the value of canned and preserved fruits and vegetables, $619,532 of planing-mill products, and $518,728 of malt liquors - much barley is grown in the Santa Clara Valley.
Lesser interests, in the order of importance, with the product value of each in 1905, were: rubber goods ($53,133,020), tanned, curried and finished leather ($33,35 2, 999), in the manufacture of which Massachusetts ranked second among the states; paper and wood pulp' ($32,012,247), in the production of which the state ranked second among the states of the Union; slaughtering and meat packing ($30,253,838); printing and publishing ($33,900,7}8, of which $21,020,237 was the value of newspapers and periodicals); clothing ($21,724,056); electrical machinery, apparatus and supplies ($15,882,216); lumber ($12,636,329); iron and steel, steel works and rolling-mills products ($ 11, 947,73 1; less than in 1900); cordage and twine ($11,173,521), in the manufacture of which Massachusetts was second only to New York; furniture ($11,092,581); malt liquors ($11,080,944); jewelry ($10,073,595), Massachusetts ranking second to Rhode Island; confectionery ($9,317,996), in which Massachusetts was third among the states.
License to sell intoxicating liquors is subject to a graduated tax.
Any town (but not any city) may at its option wholly forbid the sale of intoxicating liquors, may allow it to be sold only on condition that it be not drunk on the vendor's premises, or may allow it to be sold only by hotel-keepers and pharmacists, or by pharmacists alone.
Other important manufactures are: slaughtering and meat packing (wholesale), $6,251,705 in 1905; malt liquors, $4,471,777; and foundry and machine shop products, $3,862,279.
By a law enacted in 1909 the licensing of the sale of intoxicating liquors, other than for medical purposes by druggists and pharmacists, is left to the option of counties and cities.
He practised and pertinaciously advocated total abstinence from spirituous liquors, but did not regard prohibitory laws as always wise.
Flour and grist mill products rose during that period from $937,462 to $2,003,136; and malt liquors increased in value from $1,267,331 to $1,731,691.
In the manufacture of malt liquors and malt Milwaukee stands first among the cities of the United States and of the world.
The total value of these products for 1905 was $29,909,248, of which $22,134,580 was the value of malt liquors and $3,774,668 was the value of malt.
In 1905 Milwaukee manufactured 77.1% of the malt liquors manufactured in the state and 7.4% of the entire product of the United States.
Apothecaries may secure a licence to sell liquors for purely medicinal purposes upon a petition signed by twentyfive reputable free-holders and twenty-five reputable women.
The manufacture of felt hats (product, 1905, $4,586,040, Newark ranking third in this industry among the cities of the United States), carriages, chairs and jewelry (an industry established about 1830; product, 1905, $9,258,095), developed rapidly early in the 19th century, and there are extensive manufactories of malt liquors (product, 1905, $10,917,003), and of clothing (product, 1905, $3,937,138), foundries and machine shops (product, 1905, $6,254,153), and large establishments for smelting and refining lead and copper, the product of the lead smelters and refining establishments being in 1905 the most valuable in the city.