Sumach, liquorice and madder are also grown in the south.
In diameter, which lift the water to a trough at the top of the dam, whence it is distributed among the gardens and melon patches, rice, cotton, tobacco, liquorice and durra fields, between the immediate bed of the river and the rocky banks which shut it out from the desert.
The sugar-cane flourishes, the cotton-plant ripens to perfection, date-trees are seen in the gardens, the rocks are clothed with the prickly-pear or Indian fig, the enclosures of the fields are formed by aloes and sometimes pomegranates, the liquorice-root grows wild, and the mastic, the myrtle and many varieties of oleander and cistus form the underwood of the natural forests of arbutus and evergreen oak.
The export that comes next in value is silk, and after it may be named wheat, barley, manganese ore, maize, wool, oilcake, carpets, rye, oats, liquorice and timber.
Corn, wine, oil, wool, silk, fruits and liquorice (a speciality of the district) are exported.
On the northern inland downs liquorice grows wild and is collected by the peasants and sent down to Alexandretta.
There are extensive gardens and nurseries in the neighbourhood of Pontefract, and liquorice is largely grown for the manufacture of the celebrated Pomfret cakes.
Liquorice was largely grown as early as 1700-1701, when the corporation prohibited the sale of buds or sets of the plant.
Aromatic substances, sugar, liquorice, common salt and saltpetre, &c., dissolved in water.
Both cake and roll tobacco are equally used for smoking and chewing; for the latter purpose the cake is frequently sweetened with liquorice, and sold as honey-dew or sweet cavendish.
Various flavouring materials, such as liquorice, tonka beans (Dipteryx odorata) and other ingredients are added, the natures of which are often trade secrets.
Wheat, maize, rice, oil, flax and hemp, of fine quality, are grown in considerable quantities; as well as saffron, madder, liquorice, sumach, and a variety of fruits.
The drug may be given in a mixture with glycerine or liquorice to cover the disagreeable taste or it may be used in a spray by means of an atomizer.
Maize, millet, rye, flax, liquorice and fruits of all sorts - especially nuts, almonds, oranges, figs, walnuts and chestnuts - are produced.
Endless masses of tall weeds, belonging to a few species, cover the face of the country - large Cruciferae, Cynareae and Umbelliferae - also large quantities of liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra and echinata) and Lagonychium, and the white ears of the Imperata.
Liquorice also is collected and exported.
The most important vegetable productions are - cereals, cotton, gum tragacanth, liquorice, olive oil, opium, rice, saffron, salep, tobacco and yellow berries.
The commonest are senna in the form of compound liquorice powder, sulphur in the form of lozenges, cascara sagrada, either in tablets or in the form of liquid or dry extract, rhubarb, colocynth and especially aloes.
It is in the midst of a fertile district, in the products of which it has a large trade, and has flour-mills, distilleries, oil-works and leather-works, manufactures soap, chemicals and liquorice, and is well known for its sarsanet and other fabrics.
Here and there are found extensive rice-fields; liquorice, wheat, barley and roses are also cultivated in places.
Besides dates the principal articles of export are wool, horses, liquorice, gum and attar of roses.
The town is connected by rail with the main Transcaucasian railway to Tiflis, and is the chief port for the export of naphtha and paraffin oil, carried hither in great part through pipes laid down from Baku, but partly also in tank railway-cars; other exports are wheat, manganese, wool, silkworm-cocoons, liquorice, maize and timber (total value of exports nearly 52 millions sterling annually).
Large grain elevators have been built, and a new commercial town has grown up. Besides cereals, which amount to 69% of the whole, the exports consist of petroleum and petroleum waste, oilcake, linseed, timber, bran, millet seed, wool, potash, zinc ore and liquorice, the total annual value ranging between 32 and 54 millions sterling.
Alexandretta is still the main port for the Aleppo district, to which a good chaussee leads over the Beilan Pass, and it has a considerable export trade in tobacco, silk, cereals, liquorice, textiles.
Among the vegetable products not yet mentioned the most important are the mulberry, grown in almost all provinces, but principally in those bordering on the Mediterranean, and above all in Valencia, the chief seat of the Spanish silk production and manufacture; tobacco, which is also imported, hemp and flax, grown chiefly in Galicia and other northern provinces; among dye-plants, madder, saffron, woad (Isatis tinctoria), and wild woad or dyers weed (Reseda luteola); ground-nuts (Arachis hypogaea), grown for their oil, for the preparation of which the nuts are exported in considerable quantity to France; liquorice, cummin, colocynth, &c. Esparto, chiefly from the arid lands of the south-east, is largely exported to Great Britain.
The exports are: - Cereals, cotton, cotton seed, dried fruits, drugs, fruit, gall nuts, gum tragacanth, liquorice root, maize, nuts, olive oil, opium, rice, sesame, sponges, storax, timber, tobacco, valonia, walnut wood, wine, yellow berries, carpets, cotton yarn, cocoons, hides, leather, mohair, silk, silk stuffs, rugs, wax, wool, leeches, live stock, minerals, &c. The imports are: - Coffee, cotton cloths, cotton goods, crockery, drysalteries, fezzes, glass-ware, haberdashery, hardware, henna, ironware, jute, linen goods, manufactured goods, matches, petroleum, salt, sugar, woollen goods, yarns, &c.
Liquorice is an article of export.