Trans., 18 53, p. 357, 18 54, p. 321, and 1862, p. 579) showed that the statement that no internal work is done when a gas expands or contracts is not quite true, but the amount is very small in the cases of those gases which, like oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen, can only be liquefied by intense cold and pressure.
It is easily liquefied, the liquid boiling at - 8° C., and it becomes crystalline at - 72.7° C. (Walden, Zeit.
Nitrogen has been liquefied, the critical temperature being -149° C. and the critical pressure 27.54 atmospheres.
The liquefied gas boils at -195.5° C., and its specific gravity at its boiling point is 0 8103 (E.
It is an orange-coloured gas which may be readily liquefied and by further cooling may be solidified.
It is a gas at ordinary temperature; when liquefied it boils at -63.5° C. and on solidification melts at -139° C. Water decomposes it into nitric and hydrofluoric acids.
When zinc is placed on the lead (heated to above the melting-point of zinc), liquefied and brought into intimate contact with the lead by stirring, gold, copper, silver and lead will combine with the zinc in the order given.
To the kettle, two-thirds full of crystals of lead, is now added lead of the same tenor in silver, the whole is liquefied, and the cooling, crystallizing, skimming and ladling are repeated.
The fire underneath the pot is again started, the crystals are liquefied, and one of the two pans, filled with melted lead, is tilted by means of the crane and its contents poured into the pot.
Again, by raising the temperature, a metal in the solid state can be melted and liquefied, and poured into a mould to assume any form desired, which is retained when the metal cools and solidifies again; the gaseous state of a metal is revealed by the spectroscope.
A certain critical temperature is observed in a gas, above which the liquefaction is impossible; so that the gaseous state has two subdivisions into (i.)a true gas, which cannot be liquefied, because its temperature is above the critical temperature, (ii.) a vapour, where the temperature is below the critical, and which can ultimately be liquefied by further lowering of temperature or increase of pressure.
It may be liquefied, the liquid boiling at o° C., and on further cooling, it solidifies, the solid melting at -48° C. Many tellurides of metals have been examined by C. A.
The brine is cooled in a tank filled with spiral pipes, in which anhydrous ammonia, previously liquefied by compression, is vaporized in vacuo at the atmospheric temperature by the sensible heat of the returncurrent of brine, whose temperature has been slightly raised in its passage through the circulating tubes.
The volume of the gas, but in the United States and on the continent of Europe, where liquefied acetylene was made on the large scale, several fatal accidents occurred owing to its explosion under not easily explained conditions.
These results showed clearly that liquefied acetylene was far too dangerous for general introduction for domestic purposes, since, although the occasions would be rare in which the requisite temperature to bring about detonation would be reached, still, if this point were attained, the results would be of a most disastrous character.
The fact that several accidents had already happened accentuated the risk, and in Great Britain the storage and use of liquefied acetylene are prohibited.
When liquefied acetylene is allowed to escape from the cylinder in which it is contained into ordinary atmospheric pressure, some of the liquid assumes the gaseous condition with such rapidity as to cool the remainder below the temperature of - 90° C., and convert it into a solid snow-like mass.
It is easily liquefied and the liquid boils at-33-7° C., and solidifies at - 75° C. to a mass of white crystals.
Moissan); it has been liquefied, the liquid also being of a yellow colour and boiling at - 187° C. It is the most active of all the chemical elements; in contact with hydrogen combination takes place between the two gases with explosive violence, even in the dark, and at as low a temperature as - 210 C.; finely divided carbon burns in the gas, forming carbon tetrafluoride; water is decomposed even at ordinary temperatures, with the formation of hydrofluoric acid and "ozonised" oxygen; iodine, sulphur and phosphorus melt and then inflame in the gas; it liberates chlorine from chlorides, and combines with most metals instantaneously to form fluorides; it does not, however, combine with oxygen.
It is a colourless gas which may be liquefied by a pressure of 7 to 8 atmospheres.
It is a gas at ordinary temperature, and may be liquefied, the liquid boiling at -5° C. It combines with acetyl chloride in the presence of zinc chloride to form a ketone, which on warming breaks down into hydrochloric acid and mesityl oxide (I.
The Liquefied Gas Boils At 47° C. Under Atmospheric Pressure.
It readily liquefies at 0° C. under a pressure of four atmospheres, the liquefied acid boiling at -34.1 4° C. (730.4 mm.); it can also be obtained as a solid melting at -50 8° C. It is readily soluble in water, one volume of water at To° C. dissolving 425 volumes of the acid.
Iodine combines with chlorine to form iodine monochloride, IC1, which may be obtained by passing dry chlorine over dry iodine until the iodine is completely liquefied, or according to R.
Soon afterwards he constructed a machine from which the liquefied gas could be drawn off through a valve for use as a cooling agent, and he showed its employment for this purpose'in connexion with some researches on meteorites; about the same time he also obtained oxygen in the solid state.
It may be liquefied, the liquid boiling at -252.68° C. to -252.84°C., and it has also been solidified, the solid melting at -264° C. (J.
By numerous delicate experiments he proved that Boyle's law is only approximately true, and that those gases which are most readily liquefied diverge most widely from obedience to it.
It can be liquefied at - 34° C. under atmospheric pressure, and at - 102° C. it solidifies and crystallizes.
In the absorption machine the cooling water has to take up about twice as much heat as in the compression system, owing to the ammonia being twice liquefied - namely, once in the absorber and once in the condenser.
Freund (Monats., 1882, 3, p. 625) by heating trimethylene bromide with sodium, is a gas, which may be liquefied, the liquid boiling at -35° C. (749 mm.).
It may be liquefied, the liquid boiling at41° to - 42° C. and becoming solid at - 68° C. (K.
In 1823, when Faraday liquefied chlorine, he read a paper which suggested the application of liquids formed by the condensation of gases as mechanical agents.
In this method the bacteria are distributed in a gelatine or agar medium liquefied by heat, and the medium is then poured out on sterile glass plates or in shallow glass dishes, and allowed to solidify.
The contents are of an oily nature, and when liquefied are of great commercial value.
It can be liquefied, the liquid boiling at 9.9° C., and on further cooling it solidifies at - 79° C. It is very explosive, being resolved into its constituents by influence of light, on warming, or on application of shock.
It may be liquefied, its critical temperature being -93, 5°, and the liquid boils at -153.6° C. It is not a supporter of combustion, unless the sustance introduced is at a sufficiently high temperature to decompose the gas, when combustion will continue at the expense of the liberated oxygen.