Briihl, who concluded that benzene contained 3 double linkages; whereas, in igoi, Pellini (Gazetta, 31, i.
It will be noticed that compounds containing two double linkages will have the same general formula as the acetylene series; such compounds are known as the " diolefines."
Hydrocarbons containing any number of double or triple linkages, as well as both double and triple linkages, are possible, and a considerable number of such compounds have been prepared.
If we accept Kekule's formula for the benzene nucleus, then we may expect the double linkages to be opened up partially, either by oxidation or reduction, with the formation of di-, tetra-, or hexa-hydro derivatives, or entirely, with the production of open chain compounds.
Therefore, according to Kekule, the double linkages are in a state of continual oscillation, and if his dynamical notion of valency, or a similar hypothesis, be correct, then the difference between the 1.2 and 1.6 di-derivatives rests on the insufficiency of his formula, which represents the configuration during one set of oscillations only.
The relative merits of the formulae of Kekule, Claus and Dewar were next investigated by means of the reduction products of benzene, it being Baeyer's intention to detect whether double linkages were or were not present in the benzene complex.
From these results Baeyer concluded that Claus' formula with three para-linkings cannot possibly be correct, for the Q2.5 dihydroterephthalic acid undoubtedly has two ethylene linkages, since it readily takes up two or four atoms of bromine, and is oxidized in warm aqueous solution by alkaline potassium permanganate.
The stronger argument against the ethylenoid linkages demanded by Kekule's formula is provided by the remarkable stability towards oxidizing and reducing agents which characterizes all benzenoid compounds.
P. 1) calculated that 9 single linkages were present.
These bands are due to molecular oscillations; Hartley suggests the carbon atoms to be rotating and forming alternately single and double linkages, the formation of three double links giving three bands, and of three single links another three; Baly and Collie, on the other hand, suggest the making and breaking of links between adjacent atoms, pointing out that there are seven combinations of one, two and three pairs of carbon atoms in the benzene molecule.
Reduction to hexamethylene compounds necessitates the disruption of three of the edges of the octahedron, the diagonal linkings remaining intact, or, in the plane projection, three peripheral linkages, the hexamethylene ring assuming the form (III); In 1888 J.
Marsh also devised a form closely resembling that of Thomsen, inasmuch as the carbon atoms occupied the angles of a regular octahedron, and the diagonal linkages differed in nature from the peripheral, but differeng from Thomsen's since rupture of the diagonal and not peripheral bonds accompanied the reduction to hexamethylene.
The former, based on Kekule's symbol for benzene, explains the decompositions and syntheses of the ring, but the character of naphthalene is not in keeping with the presence of five double linkages, although it is more readily acted upon than benzene is.
During recent years an immense number of ringed or cyclic compounds have been discovered, which exhibit individual characters more closely resembling benzene, naphthalene, &c. than purely aliphatic substances, inasmuch as in general they contain double linkages, yet withstand oxidation, and behave as nuclei, forming derivatives in much the same way as benzene.
By reduction, the double linkages become saturated, and compounds result which stand in much about the same relation to the original nucleus as hexamethylene does to benzene.
In general, therefore, it may be considered that the double linkages are not of exactly the same nature as the double linkage present in ethylene and ethylenoid compounds, but that they are analogous to the potential valencies of benzene.
The centric hypothesis has been applied to these rings by Bamberger and others; but as in the previous rings considered, the ordinary (3) (4) (5) representation with double and single linkages generally represents the syntheses, decompositions, &c.; exceptions, however, are known where it is necessary to assume an oscillation of the double linkage.
An important connexion between heats of combustion and constitution is found in the investigation of the effect of single, double and triple carbon linkages on the thermochemical constants.
Only contain single carbon linkages, then the number of such linkages is 2n - m, and if the thermal effect of such a linkage be X, then the termAisobviously equal to (2n - m)X.
The thermal effect of the " alcohol " group C. OH may be determined by finding the heat of formation of the alcohol and subtracting the thermal effects of the remaining linkages in the molecule.
It also acts as a chromogenic centre when double bonds or ethylenic linkages are present, as in fluorene ketone or fluorenone.
This tautomerism may be of a twofold nature :-(I) it may involve the mere oscillation of linkages, as in acridine; or (2) it may involve the oscillation of atoms, as in fluorescein.
Considering the hydrocarbons given by the general formula C x H y, the internal linkages of the carbon atoms need at least xi bonds, using up 2(xI) valencies of the 4x to be accounted for, and thus leaving no more than 2(x-11) for binding hydrogen: a compound C 3 H 9 is therefore impossible, and indeed has never been met.