In birds, this stalk consists entirely of blood-vessels, which in the adult enclose no terminal vesicle, and fuse with the membranous linings of the skull.
Sometimes linings of enamelled iron or other material are employed, which when worn can be replaced at a far lower cost than that of a new still.
For shaft linings steel rings of H or channel section supported by intermediate struts are also used, and cross-bearers or buntons of steel joists and rail guides are now generally substituted for wood.
The town formerly had a considerable manufacture of serges and shalloons, or light woollen linings, so called from Chalons-sur-Marne, France.
Slabs are also manufactured, and, being readily cut, planed, dressed and enamelled, are used for chimney pieces, billiard tables, wall linings, cisterns, paving, tomb-stones, ridge rolls, electrical switch-boards and various other architectural and industrial purposes.
On account of its refractory nature, it is employed in the manufacture of crucibles, furnace linings, &c. It is also used in making hydraulic cements.
Cotton linings include silesia, originally a linen cloth made in Silesia and now usually a twilled cotton cloth which is dyed various colours; Italian cloth, a kind of jean or sateen produced originally in Italy.
Among these are sateen, which, dyed or printed, is largely used for dresses, linings, upholstery, &c.; linenette, dyed and finished to imitate coloured linen in the north of Ireland and elsewhere; hollandette, usually unbleached or half-bleached and finished to imitate linen holland; and interlining, a coarse, plain white calico used as padding for linen collars.
When the heat of the original bed subsides, linings of fermenting dung must be added, and these must be kept active by occasional turnings and the addition of fresh material as often as required.
The chief exceptions are the Persian and Astrachan lambs, which are bought at the Russian 'fairs, and are dressed and dyed in Leipzig, and the ermine and Russian squirrels, which are dressed and manufactured into linings either in Russia or Germany before offered for sale to the wholesale merchants or manufacturers.
Used for collars, cuffs, boas, muffs, trimmings, coat linings and carriage aprons, and is of a most durable nature, in addition to having a rich and good appearance.
Used for coat linings it is very warm and durable.
Used for cloak linings, stoles, muffs and trimmings, also for embellishment of British state, parliamentary and legal robes.
They are excellent for linings of ladies' coats, being of light weight and fairly strong in the pelt.
The sorts used for carriage aprons, coat linings and the outside of motor coats include: blue kangaroo, bush kangaroo, bridled kangaroo, wallaroo, yellow kangaroo, rock wallaby, swamp wallaby and short-tailed wallaby.
They are light in weight and therefore suitable for linings of coats.
Astrachan, Shiraz and Bokharan lambs, size 22 by 9 in., are of a coarser, looser curl, and chiefly used for coat linings, while the Persians are used for outside of garments, collars, cuffs, stoles, muffs, hats and trimmings and gloves.
They are used principally for linings of good evening wraps for ladies.
The smallest are used for glove linings and the others for opera cloak linings.
It is very durable for linings, and is an economical substitute for sable for coats, capes, boas and trimmings.
It is a very useful fur for men's coat linings and ladies' driving or motoring coats, being warm, durable and not too heavy.
They are excellent for men's coat linings and the outside of ladies' coats, for stoles, muffs, collars and cuffs.
Formerly the fur was only used for hatters' felt, but with the rise in prices of furs these skins have been more carefully removed and-with improved dressing, unhairing and silvering processes-the best provides a very effective and suitable fur for ladies' coats, capes, stoles, muffs, hats and gloves, while the lower qualities make very useful, light-weighted and inexpensive linings for men's or women's driving coats.
Their fur is pretty, warm and as yet inexpensive, and is useful for rugs, coat linings, stoles, muffs, trimmings and perambulator aprons.
There are but a few thousands imported, and being so flat they are only of use for coat linings, but they are very warm and light in weight.
Both as a fur and as a pelt it is extremely strong, but owing to its short and close wool it is usually made up for the linings, collars and cuffs of men's coats.
These make excellent linings for coats or footsacks for open driving in very cold climates.
Many of the domestic kind in central and northern Europe and Canada are used for drivers' and peasants' coat linings, &c. In Great Britain many coats of the home-reared sheep, having wools two and a half to five inches long, are dyed various colours and used as floor rugs.
It has very short hair and is a poor fur even for the cheapest linings, which is the only use to which the skin could be put.
It is known as kaluga when imported in ready-made linings from Russia where the skins are dressed and worked in an inferior way.
The backs are worked into linings separately, as are the bellies or "locks."
The pelts, although very light, are tough and durable, hence their good reputation for linings for ladies' walking or driving coats.
It is quite inexpensive and only suitable for cheap rough coats, carriage rugs, perambulator aprons and linings for footbags.
The introduction of a third fur in the same garment or indiscriminate selection of colours of silk linings, braids, buttons, &c., often spoils an otherwise good article.
A very great feature of German and Russian work is the fur linings called rotondes, sacques or plates, which are made for their home use and exportation chiefly to Great Britain, America and France.
In Weissenfels, near Leipzig, the dressing of Russian grey squirrel and the making it into linings is a gigantic industry, and is the principal support of the place.
A few linings are made from entire skins and others are made from the quite white pieces, which in some instances are spotted with the black ear tips of the animals to resemble ermine.
The smaller and uneven pieces of heads and legs are made up into linings, so there is absolutely no waste.
Many squirrellock linings are dyed blue and brown and used for the outside of cheap garments.
The principal linings are as follows: Sable sides, sable heads and paws, sable gills, mink sides, heads and gills, marten sides, heads and gills, Persian lamb pieces and paws, caracul lamb pieces or paws, musquash sides and heads, nutria sides, genet pieces, raccoon sides or flanks, fox sides, kolinski whole skins, and small rodents as kaluga and hamster.
Another great source of inexpensive furs is China, and for many years past enormous quantities of dressed furs, many of which are made up in the form of linings and Chinese looseshaped garments, have been imported by England, Germany and France for the lower class of business; the garments are only regarded as so much fur and are reworked.
The durability of fur used as linings, which is affected by other conditions, is set forth separately.
Otter with the water hairs removed, the strongest fur suited for linings, is here taken as the standard.
Durability and Weight of Linings for Ladies' Coats or Wraps.
Sable gills, the strongest fur suited for ladies' linings, is taken as the standard.
For the linings of brasses, various white metals are used, these being alloys of copper, antimony and tin, and occasionally lead.
On account of its lightness, softness and non-conducting properties it is used for hat-linings and the soles of shoes, the latter being a very ancient application of cork.
It has been found to stand well for the linings of rotatory puddling furnaces, where, under long-continued heating, it changes into a substance as hard and infusible as natural emery.
Kilburn Scott, "Refractory Materials for Furnace Linings," Faraday Soc., 1906, p. 289).