Sub-order Limicolae.-Nidifugous, without spina interna sterni.
The turnstone is about as big as an ordinary snipe; but, compared with most of its allies of the group Limicolae, to which it belongs, its form is somewhat heavy, and its legs are short.
The nest, contrary to the habits of most Limicolae, is generally placed under a ledge of rock which shelters the bird from observation,' and therein are laid four eggs, of a light olive-green, closely blotched with brown, and hardly to be mistaken for those of any other bird.
Ducks, divers, geese, gulls, all the Russian species of snipes and sandpipers (Limicolae, Tringae), &c., swarm on the marshes of the tundras and on the crags of the Lapland coast.
The sperm ducts are usually longer than the oviducts; but in Limicolae both series of tubes opening by the funnel into one segment and on to the exterior in the following segment.
- With a few exceptions the Limicolae are, as the name denotes, aquatic in habit.
Sperm ducts and atria as in Limicolae; egg sacs large; body wall thick; vascular system and nephridia as in Terricolae.
But those who know the habits and demeanour of many of the Limicolae would no doubt rightly claim for them much more " vivacity and activity " than is possessed by most Passeres.
The fifth order (the third of the Dasypaedes) is formed by the Grallatores, divided into 2 " series " - (I) Altinares, consisting of 2 " cohorts," Herodii with I family, the herons, and Pelargi with 4 families, spoonbills, ibises, storks, and the umbre (Scopus), with Balaeniceps; (2) Humilinares, also consisting of 2 " cohorts," Limicolae with 2 families, sandpipers and snipes, stilts and avocets, and Cursores with 8 families, including plovers, bustards, cranes, rails, and all the other " waders."
Orders: Aphaneura, Limicolae, Moniligastres, Terricolae.
A ccipitres), Tinamiformes, Galliformes (Sub orders: Mesites, Turnices, Galli, Opisthocomi), Gruiformes, Charadriiformes (Sub-orders: Limicolae, Lari, Pterocles, Columbae), Cuculiformes (Sub-orders: Cuculi, Psittaci), Coraciiformes (Sub-orders: Coraciae, Striges, Caprimulgi, Cypseli, Colii, Trogones, Pici), Passeriformes (Sub-orders: Passeres Anisomyodae, Passeres Diacromyodae).
The godwits belong to the group Limicolae, and are about as big as a tame pigeon, but possess long legs, and a long bill with a slight upward turn.
Indeed, in many species of Limicolae, as the dotterel, the godwits (q.v.), phalaropes and perhaps some others, the female is larger and more brightly coloured than the male, who in such cases seems to take upon himself some at least of the domestic duties.
Sandpfeifer), the name applied to nearly all the smaller kinds of the group Limicolae which are not Plovers (q.v.) or Snipes (q.v.), but may be said to be intermediate between them.