In Cuba, Martinique, Peru and elsewhere the old-fashioned double-bottomed defecator is used, into which the juice is run direct, and there limed and heated.
These results are brought about by adding to the cold juice as it comes from the mill the proper proportion of milk of lime set up at 8° B., and then delivering the limed juice in a constant steady stream as near the bottom of the defecator as possible; it is thus brought into immediate contact with the heating surface and heated once for all before it ascends, with the result of avoiding the disturbance caused in the ordinary defecator by pouring cold juice from above on to the surface of the heated juice, and so establishing down-currents of cold juice and up-currents of hot juice.
The action of the moderate heat, 210° F., on the limed juice causes the albumen in it to coagulate; this rising to the surface collects the cachazas, which form and float thereon.
It is then treated with sulphurous acid gas, for the purpose of decolorization, again limed to neutralize the acid, and then passed through a third saturator wherein all traces of lime and sulphur are removed.
The carbonic acid gas injected into the highly limed juice in the saturators is made by the calcination of limestone in a kiln provided with three cleaning doors, so arranged as to allow the lime to be removed simultaneously from them every six hours.
A sheet iron case is then placed within the furnace, and the space between it and the walls rammed with limed charcoal; the interior is filled with fragments of the iron or copper to be alloyed, mixed with alumina and coarse charcoal, broken pieces of carbon being placed in position to connect the electrodes.
The time of Mostan~ir is otherwise memorable for the rise of the Assassins (qv.), who at the first supported the claims of his eldest son Nizgr to the succession against the youngest Ahmed, who was favored by the family of Badr. When Badr died in 1094 his influence was inherited by his son aI-Af~al Shghinshh, and this, at the death of Mostansir in the same year, was thrown in favor of A limed, who succeeded to the caliphate with the title al-Mostali bill/-i.
Other things being equal, the higher the percentage of lime within the limits indicated above the stronger is the cement, but such highly limed cement is less easy to burn than cement containing about 62% of lime; and unless the burning is thorough and the raw materials are intimately mixed, the cement is apt to be unsound.