There is more than one meaning of Lima discussed in the 1911 Encyclopedia.
For higher instruction there are four universities: the Universidad Mayor de San Marcos at Lima, and three provincial institutions at Arequipa, Cuzco and Trujillo.
It was for many years an object of contention among the Spanish factions, but ultimately the greater attractions of Lima and its own isolation diminished its importance.
The combined forces of Buenos Aires and Chile defeated the Spaniards at Chacabuco in 1817, and at Maipu in 1818; and from Chile the victorious general Jose de San Martin led his troops into Peru, where on the 9th of July 1821, he made a triumphal entry into Lima, which had been the chief stronghold of the Spanish power, having from the time of its foundation by Pizarro been the seat of government of a viceroyalty which at one time extended to the river Plate.
In April 1520 Vasco da Gama, as viceroy of the Indies, took a fleet into the Red sea, and landed an embassy consisting of Dom Rodriguez de Lima and Father Francisco Alvarez, a priest whose detailed narrative is the earliest and not the least interesting account we possess of Abyssinia.
The springs are situated in the valley of the Lima, a tributary of the Serchio; and the district is known in the early history of Lucca as the Vicaria di Val di Lima.
Above sea-level, between the western and central Cordilleras, and on the main road between Lima and Cuzco, 394 m.
For the next ten years, however, there was a decrease, and in 1908 the output had fallen to 10,858,797 barrels, of which 6,748,676 barrels (valued at $6,861,885) was obtained in the Lima district, 4,109,935 barrels (valued at $7,315,667) from the southeast district, and 186 barrels (valued at $950), suitable for lubricating purposes, from the Mecca-Belden district in Trumbull and Lorain counties.
West of Lima, in 12° 04' S., 77° 13' W.
The port is connected with Lima by two railways and an electric tramway, with Oroya by railway 138 m.
There are, owing perhaps to the proximity of Lima, few industrial establishments in the city; among them are a large sugar refinery, some flour-mills, a brewery, a factory for making effervescent drinks, and a number of foundries and repair shops.
Again, in 1880, the city was bombarded by the Chileans, though it was almost defenceless, and fell into the possession of the invaders after the capture of Lima in the following year.
Of Lima by rail.
Near Lima one of the low ranges is brightened by the beautiful yellow lily called amancaes (Ismene Amancaes).
For purposes of description the coast-region of Peru may be divided into five sections, beginning from the north: (1) the Piura region; (2) the Lambayeque and Trujillo section; (3) the Santa valleys; (4) the section from Lima to Nasca; (5) the Arequipa and Tacna section.
Those of Carabayllo and Rimac are connected, and the view from the Bay of Callao extends over a vast expanse of fertile plain bounded by the Andes, with the white towers of Lima in a setting of verdure.
Above the sea, and in the mountains above Lima the passes attain a height of more than 15,000 ft.
Above Lima the western chain of the Andes is composed of porphyritic tuffs and massive limestones, while the longitudinal valley of the Oroya is hollowed in carbonaceous sandstones.
Raimondi, El Departamento de Ancachs y sus riquezas minerales (Lima, 1873); G.
Garland, Peru in 1906, Lima, 1907), which gave the population as 3,547,829, including Tacna (8000).
The foreign population is chiefly concentrated in Lima and Callao, though mining and other industries have drawn small contingents to other places.
Universities and colleges were founded in Peru soon after the conquest, and Lima, Cuzco, Arequipa and Chuquisaca (now the Bolivian town of Sucre) became centres of considerable intellectual activity.
Something was done for the education of the sons of the Indian " nobility," schools being created at Lima and Cuzco.
The university of San Marcos at Lima is the oldest collegiate institution in the New World, originating in a grant from Charles V.
The professional schools include a school of civil and mining engineering at Lima (created 1876), a military school at Chorrillos under the direction of French instructors, a naval school at Callao, nine episcopal seminaries (one for each diocese), a national agricultural school in the vicinity of Lima (created 1902), and a few commercial schools.
There is also a correctional school at Lima devoted to the education and training of youthful delinquents.
Don Hipolito Unanue, born at Arica in 1755, wrote an important work on the climate of Lima and contributed to the Mercurio pervano.
This periodical was started in 1791 at Lima, the contributors forming a society called " amantes del pais," and it was completed in eleven volumes.
An ephemeris and guide to Peru was begun by the learned geographer Dr Cosme Bueno, and continued by Dr Unanue, who brought out his guides at Lima from 1 793 to 1798.
In 1794 a nautical school was founded at Lima, with Andres Baleato as instructor and Pedro Alvarez as teacher of the use of instruments.
The most prolific author of colonial times was Dr Pedro de Peralta y Barnuevo, who wrote more than sixty works, including an epic poem entitled Lima fundada.
The topographical labours of Cosme Bueno and Unanue were ably continued at Lima by Admiral Don Eduardo Carrasco, who compiled annual guides of Peru from 1826.
The leading Peruvian authors on constitutional and legal subjects are Dr Jose Santistevan, who has published volumes on civil and criminal law; Luis Felipe Villaran (subsequently rector of the university at Lima), author of a work on constitutional right; Dr Francisco Garcia Calderon (once president of Peru), author of a dictionary of Peruvian legislation, in two volumes; Dr Francisco Xavier Mariategui, one of the fathers of Peruvian independence; and Dr Francisco de Paula Vigil (1792-1875), orator and statesman as well as author, whose work, Defensa de los gobiernos, is a noble and enlightened statement of the case for civil governments against the pretensions of the court of Rome.
Only four volumes had been published at the time of his death, but he left a mass of papers and manuscripts which the government has put in the hands of the Geographical Society of Lima for publication.
His great work is entitled El Peru: estudios mineralogicos, &c. (3 vols., Lima, 1890-1902), and one separate volume on the department of Ancachs.
The comedies of Segura on the customs of Lima society, entitled Un Paseo a Amancaes and La Saya y Manto, have no equal in the dramatic literature of Spanish America and few in that of modern Spain.
At the outbreak of the war with Chile he was vice-director of the national library at Lima, which was wantonly pillaged by the Chilean forces.
After the evacuation of Lima by the Chileans Palma devoted his life to the recovery of his scattered books and the acquisition of new collections, and he had the satisfaction before his death of re-opening the library, which had obtained about 30,000 volumes, or three-fourths of the number on its shelves before the Chilean invasion.
The important work of Mariano Eduardo Rivero, of Arequipa, 1 The city of Lima produced two saints, the archbishop St Toribio, who flourished from 1578 to 1606, and Santa Rosa, the patron saint of the city of the kings (1586-1616), whose festival is celebrated on the 26th of August.
The Lima Geographical Society (founded in 1888) is perhaps the best and most active scientific organization in the republic. Its special work covers national geographical exploration and study, archaeology, statistics and climatology, and its quarterly bulletins contain invaluable information.
The society receives a government subsidy, and its rooms in the national library in Lima are the principal centre of scientific study in Peru.
The historical institute of Peru, also at Lima, is charged by the government, from which it receives a liberal subsidy, with the work of collecting, preparing and publishing documents relating to Peruvian history, and of preserving objects of archaeological and historic character.
There are Anglican churches in Lima and Cuzco, belonging to the diocese of the Bishop of the Falkland Islands; but their existence is illegal and is ignored rather than permitted.
In its ecclesiastical organization Peru is divided into nine dioceses: Lima, which is an archbishopric, Arequipa, Puno, Cuzco, Ayacucho, Huanuco, Huaraz, Trujillo and Chachapoyas.
There are a number of fine churches in Lima and in the sees of the various dioceses.
Thus the number of officers reporting direct to Lima was reduced from 77 to 7, a great improvement.
Near Lima, on the south, there are three bathing resorts, Chorrillos, Miraflores and Barranco, which have handsome residences and large populations in the bathing season.
North of Lima is the port and bathing resort of Ancon, in an extremely arid locality but having a fine beach, a healthy climate and a considerable population in the season.
Railway construction in Peru began in 1848 with a short line from Callao to Lima, but the building of railway lines across the desert to the inland towns of the fertile river valleys and the Andean foot-hills did not begin until twenty years later.
The inland telegraph service dates from 1864, when a short line from Callao to Lima was constructed, and state ownership from 1875, when the government assumed control of all lines within the republic, some of which were subsequently handed over to private administration.
Next in importance is cotton, which is grown along the greater part of the Peruvian coast, but chiefly in the departments of Piura, Lima and Ica.
In addition to the smelting works at Cerro de Pasco there are other large works at Casapalca, between Oroya and Lima, which belong to a British company, and smaller plants at Huallanca and Huinac. The production of copper is steadily increasing, the returns for 1903 being 9497 tons and for 1906 13,474 tons, valued respectively at £476,824 and £996,055.
There are large woollen factories at Cuzco and Lima, the Santa Catalina factory at the latter place turning out cloth and cashmere for the army, blankets, counterpanes and underclothing.
There are cotton factories about Lima, at Ica and at Arequipa.
There are breweries in Arequipa, Callao, Cuzco and Lima, and the consumption of beer is increasing.
There are large cigarette factories in Lima, and others in Arequipa, Callao, Piura and Trujillo.
The republic is divided into four military districts with headquarters at Piura, Lima, Arequipa and Iquitos, and these into eleven circumscriptions.
Parts of the state, and the Lima-Indiana field in the N.W.
Lima biji, telor, five eggs.