Another group in the north of France has its centres at Lille, Tourcoing, Roubaix, St Quentin and Amiens.
Commercial and technical instruction is given in various institutions comprising national establishments such as the icoles nalionales professionnelles of Armentires, Vierzon, Voiron and Nantes for the education of working men; the more advanced coles darts et mtiers of Chlons, Angers, Aix, Lille and Cluny; and the Central School of Arts and Manufactures at Paris; schools depending on the communes and state in combination, e.g.
Weismann (Frankfort, 1850) and by C. Kinzel (Halle, 1884); the Alexandreis of Gaultier de Lille, by F.
Ellis quotes an organ at Lille, a' 374.2, but no other instance of the very low Schlick pitch is recorded, although trial of the French cathedral organs might perhaps result in the finding of examples.
The Jewish parishes, called synagogues, are grouped into departmental consistories (Paris, Bordeaux, Nancy, Marseilles, Bayonne, Lille, Vesoul, Besancon and three in Algeria).
Nord Lille, Anzin, Denain, Douai, I
Flax, Hemp, Jute, &c.The preparation and spinning of these materials and the manufacture of nets and rope, together with the weaving of linen and other fabrics, give occupation to 112,000 persons chiefly in the departments of Nord (Lille, Armentires, Dunkirk), Somme (Amiens) and Maine-et-Loire (Angers, Cholet).
Its main lines run from Paris to Calais, via Creil, Amiens and Boulogne, from Paris to Lille, via Creil and Arras, and from Paris to Maubeuge via Creil, Tergnier and St Quentin.
N0RD Lille OlsE Beauvais .
The chief towns of these districts are Algiers,, Bayonne, Besancon, Bordeaux, Boulogne, Brest, Chambry, Charleville, Dunkirk, ~pinal, La Rochelle, Le Havre, Lille, Lyons, Marseilles, Montpllier, Nancy, Nantes, Nice, Paris, Perpignan,Rouen, St-Malo,Valenciennes.
On the side of Belgium the danger of irruption through neutral territory, which has for many years been foreseen, is provided against by the fortresses of Lille, Valenciennes and Maubeuge, but (with a view to tempting the Germans to attack through Luxemburg, as is stated by German authorities) the frontier between Maubeuge and Verdun is left practically undefended.
There are 2 faculties of Protestant theology (Paris and Montauban); 12 faculties of law (Paris, Aix, Bordeaux, Caen, Grenoble, Lille, Lyons, Montpellier, Nancy, Poitiers, Rennes, Toulouse); 3 faculties of medicine (Paris, Montpellier and Nancy), and 4 joint faculties of medicine and pharmacy (Bordeaux, Lille, Lyons, Toulouse); 15 faculties of sciences (Paris, Besancon, Bor~ deaux, Caen, Clermont, Dijon, Grenoble, Lille, Lyons, Marseilles, Montpellier, Nancy, Poitiers, Rennes, Toulouse); 15 faculties of letters (at the same towns, substituting Aix for Marseilles).
The private faculties are at Paris (the Catholic Institute with a faculty of law); Angers (law, science and letters); Lille (law, medicine and pharmacy, science, letters); Lyons (law, science, letters); Marseilles (law); Toulouse (Catholic Institute with faculties of theology and letters).
The coles pratiques de commerce et dindustrie for the training of clerks and workmen; private schools controlled by the state, such as the coles supirieures de commerce; certain municipal schools, such as the Industrial Institute of Lille; and private establishments, e.g.
There are now four circuits between London and Paris, one between London and Lille, and two between Londofi and Brussels, the last carrying an increasing amount of traffic. Experiments have been made in telephonic communication between London and Rome by way of Paris.
Salembier, Petrus de Alliaco (Lille, 1886); H.
The Fructidorian Directors contemptuously rejected the overtures for peace which Pitt had recently made through the medium of Lord Malmesbury at Lille; and they further illustrated their desire for war and plunder by initiating a forward policy in central Italy and Switzerland which opened up a new cycle of war.
Griselle, Bourdaloue, histoire critique de sa predication (2 vols., Paris, 1901), Sermons inedits; bibliographie, &c. (Paris, 1901), Deux sermons inedits sur le royaume de Dieu (Lille and Paris, 1904); Ferdinand Castets, Bourdaloue, la vie et la predication d'un religieux au X Vil e siecle, and La Revue Bourdaloue (Paris, 1902-1904); C. H.
Allocutions, epistolae, &c. (Bruges and Lille, 1887, &c.); the encyclicals (Sdmtliche Rundschreiben) with a German translation (6 vols., Freiburg, 1878-1904); Discorsi del Sommo Pontefice Leone XIII.
Of Lille on the Northern railway.
Its commerce is much facilitated by the system of canals which bring it into communication with Belgium, the coal-basins of Nord and Pasde-Calais, the rich agricultural regions of Flanders and Artois, and the industrial towns of Lille, Armentieres, Roubaix, Tourcoing, Valenciennes, &c. The roadstead is indicated by lightships and the entrance channel to the port by a lighthouse which, at an altitude of 193 ft., is visible at a distance of 19 m.
For a time Maret betook himself to journalism; but he played a useful part in the negotiations for a peace with Great Britain which went on at Lille during the summer of 1797, until the victory of the Jacobins at Paris in the coup d'etat of Fructidor (Sept.
For Maret's mission to England in 1792 and his work at Lille in 1797, see Augustus W.
More important is Alain de Lille (Alanus de Insulis), who died at an advanced age in 1203.
Was played first at, Lille in that year;_) it did not appear in Paris till August next year, and Merope not till 1743.
The earliest record of glass-making in the Low Countries consists in an account of payments made in 1453-1454 on behalf of Philip the Good of Burgundy to " Gossiun de Vieuglise, Maitre Vorrier de Lille " for a glass fountain and four glass plateaus.
Of Lille on the Northern railway between that city and Cambrai.
See Ricard, Les grands eveques de l'e'glise de France au XIXe siecle (Lille, 1893); L.
Corps cantoned between Lille and Valenciennes.
The necessary three days' warning of the French concentration they felt certain they would obtain, for Napoleon's troops were at this juncture distributed over an area (Lille-Metz-Paris) of 175 m.
'ALAIN DE LILLE' [Alanus de Insulis] (c. 1128-1202), French theologian and poet, was born, probably at Lille, some years, before 1128.
As a theologian Alain de Lille shared in the mystic reaction of the second half of the 12th century against the scholastic philosophy.
Alain de Lille has often been confounded with other persons named Alain, in particular with' Alain, archbishop of Auxerre, Alan, abbot of Tewkesbury, Alain de Podio, etc. Certain facts of their lives have been attributed' to him, as well as some of their works: thus the Life of St Bernard should be ascribed to Alain of Auxerre and the Commentary upon Merlin to Alan of Tewkesbury.
Neither is the philosopher of Lille the author of a Memoriale rerum difficilium, published under his name; and it is exceedingly doubtful whether the Dicta Alani de lapide philosophico really issued from his pen.
On the other hand, it now seems practically demonstrated that Alain de Lille was the author of the Ars catholicae fidei and the treatise Contra haereticos.
See Haureau, Memoire sur la vie et quelques oeuvres d'Alain de Lille (Paris, 1885); M.
With a little band of fifty-six followers he attempted to provoke a rising of the 42nd regiment of the line at Boulogne, hoping afterwards to draw General Magnan to Lille and march upon Paris.
Proudhon (Lille, 1867); Spoll, P. J.
The mutiny at the Nore, the threat of rebellion in Ireland, the alarming fall in consols, argued strongly against continuing the war singlehanded, and in July Lord Malmesbury had been sent to Lille to open fresh negotiations with the plenipotentiaries of France.
During the negotiations for peace at Lille (1797), Canning was actively concerned in the devices which were employed by Pitt and Grenville to keep the real character of the discussion secret from other members of the cabinet.
It was the speeches of Ledru-Rollin and Louis Blanc at working-men's banquets in Lille, Dijon and Chalons that really heralded the revolution.