I, End of hydroid of the thalloid Liverwort Blyttia, showing the thick lignified wall penetrated by simple pits.
The walls of these cells are strongly lignified (i.e.
In a few cases there is a special surface or epidermal layer, but usually all the outer layers of the stem are composed of brown, thick-walled, lignified, prosenchymatous, fibre-like cells forming a peripheral stereom (mechanical or supporting tissue) which forms the outer cortex.
The hydroid of a Pteridophyte or of a Phanerogam is characteristically a dead, usually elongated, cell containing air and water, and either thin-walled with lignified (woody) spiral (fig.
I, p.) or annular thickenings, or with thick lignified walls, incompletely perforated by pits (fig.i, 9.) (usually bordered pits) of various shapes, e.g.
The whole of the middle lamella or originally formed cell-wall separating one from another disappears before the adult state is reached, so that the walls of the hydroids consist of a framework of lignified bars, with open communication between the cell cavities.
The former often has its cells lignified, and may consist of alternate layers of hard and soft cells.
Woody or lignified cell-walls appear to contain substances called conifer-in and vanillin, in addition to various other compounds which are imperfectly known.
Lignified tissues are colored yellow by aniline sulphate or aniline chloride, violet with phloroglucin and hydrochloric acid, and characteristic reactions are also given by mixtures containing phenol, indol, skatol, thailin, sulphate, &c. (see Zimmermanns Microtechnique).
Staining reagents can also be used to differentiate lignified cell-walls.
The suberized and cuticularized cell-walls appear to contain a fatty body called suberin, and such cell-walls can be stained red by a solution of alcanin, the lignified and cellulose membranes remaining unstained.
One form of Cephalotaxus is characterized by the presence of short tracheids in the pith, in shape like ordinary parenchyma, but in the possession of bordered pits and lignified walls agreeing with ordinary xylem-tracheids; it is probable that these short tracheids serve as reservoirs for storing rather than for conducting water.