Apart from these, there were three well-defined parties: (1) those with Presbyterian ideas and s y mpathies, a great majority; (2) Erastians, ably represented and led by Selden, Lightfoot and Coleman; (3) Independents, ten or eleven in number, led by Philip Nye, and assured of Cromwell's support.
Harnack, Julicher and McGiffert, however, agree with Lightfoot, Weiss, Zahn (and early tradition) in holding that the letter is wholly Pauline - a position which is proving more and more acceptable to contemporary scholarship.
Lightfoot (1875), H.
5 The term patres apostolici is due to the patristic scholars of the 17th century: see Lightfoot, St Clement of Rome, i.
JOSEPH BARBER LIGHTFOOT (1828-1889), English theologian and bishop of Durham, was born at Liverpool on the 13th of April 1828.
In 1847 Lightfoot went up to Trinity College, Cambridge, and there read for his degree with Westcott.
It was a characteristic of equal importance that Dr Lightfoot, like Dr Westcott, never discussed these subjects in the mere spirit of controversy.
In a series of masterly papers in the Contemporary Review, between December 1874 and May 1877, Lightfoot successfully undertook the defence of the New Testament canon.
Lightfoot, on the contrary, endeavoured to make his author interpret himself, and by considering the general drift of his argument to discover his meaning where it appeared doubtful.
In 1879 Lightfoot was consecrated bishop of Durham in succession to C. Baring.
In the Westminster Assembly a party holding this view included Selden, Lightfoot, Coleman and Whitelocke, whose speech (1645) is appended to Lee's version of the Theses; but the opposite view, after much controversy, was carried, Lightfoot alone dissenting.
Lightfoot, Apostolic Fathers, ii.
Weiss, Meyer, Sabatier, Lightfoot, Hort, Sanday, Bacon, Julicher, Harnack, Zahn and many others.
To 120-165; Lightfoot and Funk to 80-100; Salmon to 120.
Op., 1876, and in the smaller form in 1900, Lightfoot 2, 1890, Funk 2, 1901.
423-431; Lightfoot, Apostolic Fathers, i.
Lightfoot, both of whom preceded him to Trinity College, Cambridge, where he was elected a sub-sizar in 1848, becoming subsequently sizar and scholar.
As Laodicea is close to Colossae it does not follow, even if Archippus be held to have belonged to the former town (as Lightfoot argues from Col.
The main argument for putting it earlier is derived from the admitted affinities between it and Romans, the Colossian and Ephesian epistles containing, it is held, a more advanced christology (so Lightfoot especially, and Hort, Judaistic Christianity, pp. 115-129).
Lightfoot (6th ed., 1891) and A.
Among his collaborators were James Ussher, John Lightfoot and Edward Pococke, Edmund Castell, Abraham Wheelocke and Patrick Young.
Arnold, Studien (Konigsberg, 1887); Lightfoot, Apostolic Fathers, ii.
Notwithstanding, on various critical grounds, Baur, Hilgenfeld, Lightfoot, Westcott, Hort and Beyschlag assigned the book to the reign of Nero, or to the years immediately following his death, while Weiss, Dusterdieck and AfIommsen assign it to the time of Vespasian.
Lightfoot, however, has proved that Polycarp's statements may equally well be directed against Corinthianism or any other form of Docetism, while some of his arguments are absolutely inapplicable to Marcionism.
Lightfoot, 8 Harnack,' Kruger)'° is unanimous in regarding it as an authentic document, though it recognizes that here and there a few slight interpolations have been inserted."Besides these we have no other sources for the life of Polycarp; the Vita S.
Polycarpi auctore Pionio (published by Duchesne, Paris, 1881,1881, and Lightfoot Ignatius and Polycarp, 1885, ii.
Lightfoot has cited many instances which prove that the word could be used of a man of thirty.
It is true that Harnack has adduced arguments which cannot be discussed here to prove that Irenaeus was not born till about 140; 15 but against this we may quote the decision of Lipsius, who puts the date of his birth at 130, 16 while Lightfoot argues for 120.17 The fact that Irenaeus never quotes Polycarp does not count for much.
Is See Lightfoot, op. cit.
His views have been accepted by (amongst many others) Renan, 1 Hilgenfeld, 2 Gebhardt,3 Lipsius, 4 Harnack, 5 Zahn, 6 Lightfoot, ?
Lightfoot, Apostolic Fathers, pt.
Lightfoot, Ep. to the Philippians, p. 192.
Lightfoot on Col.
9 See Lightfoot, Ancient and Modern Missions.
They were to be supported by five bombarding monitors ("Marshal Soult," "Lord Clive," "Prince Eugene," "General Crawford," M24 and M26) and covered by five British destroyers ("Swift," "Faulknor," "Matchless," "Mastiff" and "Afridi"), with three British destroyers and six French torpedo boats attending on the monitors ("Mentor," "Lightfoot," "Zubian," "Lestin," "Capitaine Mehl," "Francis Gamier," "Roux," "Bouclier").
Hamilton Benn were busy laying a smoke screen, supported by the "Faulknor" (flying Commodore Hubert Lyne's broad pendant), "Lightfoot," "Mastiff," "Afridi," "Swift" and "Matchless."
The Ophites are said to have not only used myths but forbidden marriage and held that the resurrection was purely spiritual (Lightfoot); this, however, is probably no more than an interesting coincidence, and all attempts to identify the errorists definitely must be abandoned.'
Lightfoot explains the name as meaning " the silent ones," others as meaning " physicians."
This common source we may believe with Lightfoot to have been the Persian religion, which we know to have profoundly influenced that of Israel, independently of the Essenes.
I.; Lightfoot on the Colossians; Lucius, Der Essenismus in seinem Verhaltniss zum Judenthum; Wellhausen, Israelitische and jiidische Geschichte; Ed.
He took pupils; and among his pupils there were reading with him, almost at the same time, his school friend Lightfoot and two other men who became his attached and lifelong friends, E.
But the regius professorship of divinity at Cambridge fell vacant, and Lightfoot, who was then Hulsean professor, declining to become a candidate himself, insisted upon Westcott's standing for the post.