..: the ships anchor at considerable risk in the roads, but the love of gain prevails: for the large number of lighters which receive the cargoes and reload them renders the time short before they can enter the river, and having lightened a part of their cargoes they sail in and ascend to Rome."
Formerly of some importance, the harbour can no longer be entered by large vessels, and goods are transhipped into flat-bottomed lighters for conveyance ashore.
Vessels load and discharge by means of lighters, the outer harbour having a depth at entrance of 24 ft.
Especially constructed lighters, with motor power, were to play an important part in the disembarkations, a number of them having recently arrived from England.
The only hitch that had occurred during the night-time had been at the landing-place within the bay, where the water had proved to be inconveniently shallow for the lighters; this had created some confusion and delay.
Large quantities of grain are shipped in lighters to Braila.
Three rivers emptying into the bay - the San Juan, Canimar and Yumuri - have deposited much silt, necessitating the use of lighters in loading and unloading large ships.
Broad and of good depth right up to the banks, the river offers every convenience for the berthing and loading of ships, though a bar at its mouth, which prevents the passage of vessels drawing more than 12 ft., necessitates in the case of large ships a partial loading and unloading from lighters outside.
It is a modern commercial town, having a school of arts and crafts, several churches, and large government yards for the building of river steamers, lighters and tug-boats.
The depth of water at the main entrance is 41 to 5 fathoms and in the western bay 3 to 4 fathoms. For lack of docks and quayage, large vessels lie off Steamer Point and all cargo is handled by means of lighters, the labour being either Somali or Arab.
There is anchorage for steamers in 5 to 6 fathoms. Vessels were loaded and discharged by lighters from the beach.
The harbour is an open roadstead, very dangerous to shipping in northerly winds, and the discharge and loading of cargoes is effected by means of lighters at considerable risk and expense.
Some of the lighters used in the Rhine transport trade have a capacity of 3000 tons.
Bremen is the centre for some of the more important of the German shipping companies, especially of the North German Lloyd (founded in 1856), which, on the 1st of January 1905, possessed a fleet of 382 steamers of 693,892 tons, besides lighters and similar craft.
Sulina is the only free port on the Danube, and is much used for the transhipment into seagoing vessels of grain which is brought down the river in large lighters from Rumania, Russia, Bulgaria, Servia and AustriaHungary.
From Guayaquil, where cargoes and passengers are transferred to lighters and tenders.
In unfavourable conditions and for larger steamers tugs and lighters are employed.
Rough weather prevents discharge of cargo by lighters, on an average, seven days in the year.
At a very early date the original harbour at Naples, now known in its greatly reduced state as Porto Piccolo, and fit only for boats and lighters, became too small.
Long, connecting Lake Ontario and Lake Erie, with locks 270 by 45 by 14 ft., leaves Lake Erie at Port Colborne, where the Canadian government have constructed an artificial harbour and elevators for transhipment of grain from upper lake freighters to lighters of canal capacity.
"For some years before the improvements, an average of 2000 vessels of an aggregate capacity of 400,000 tons visited the Danube, and of this number more than three-fourths loaded either the whole or part of their cargoes from lighters in the Sulina roadstead, where, lying off a lee shore, they were frequently exposed to the greatest danger.
One dark winter night in 1855, during a terrific gale, 24 sailing ships and 60 lighters went ashore off the mouth and upwards of 300 persons perished."