The Ahoms retained the form of government in Assam peculiar to the Shan tribes, which may be briefly described as an organized system of personal service in lieu of taxation.
" Prestations " are payments in lieu of services (apart from military service) to the state, such as maintenance of highways, &c. - in effect, purchase of exoneration from forced labour.
Note should be made of a short treatise on La Formation francaise des anciens noms du lieu (1867); a memoir De l'ogive et de l'architecture dite ogivale (1850), where he gives his theory on the use of stone arches - important for the history of religious architecture; an article on L'Age de la cathedrale de Laon (1874), in which he fixed the exact date of the birth of Gothic architecture; Histoire du costume en France (1875; 2nd ed.
The Latin term " tractatus," and its derivatives, though of occasional occurrence in this sense from the 13th century onwards, only began to be commonly so employed, in lieu of the older technical terms " conventio publica," or " foedus," from the end of the r7th century.
This land was divided between the stanitsas, at the rate of 81 acres per each soul, with special grants to officers (personal to some of them, in lieu of pensions), and leaving about one-third of the land as a reserve for the future.
Barbier, Rene Descartes, sa famille, son lieu de naissance, &c. (1901); Richard Lowndes, Rene Descartes, his Life and Meditations (London, 1878); J.
The colleges, though of a lower grade, are in most respects similar to the lyces, but they are financed by the communes: the professors may have certain less important qualifications in lieu of the agrgation.
He was lodged in `the Louvre, received the grant of an income equal to that he had hitherto enjoyed, and, with the title of "veteran pensioner" in lieu of that of "foreign associate" (conferred in 1772), the right of voting at the deliberations of the Academy.
Neisen and others to introduce glass valves in lieu of stop-cocks.
At regular intervals the steamers of the Dutch Royal Steam Packet Company call at Dorey and other points, while administrative posts have been established elsewhere in lieu of others previously attempted but abandoned.
The latter are in fact little microscopes carrying a vernier etched on glass, in lieu of a filar micrometer.
To his translation (1530) of a Latin Chronicle and Description of Turkey, by a Transylvanian captive, which had been prefaced by Luther, he added an appendix holding up the Turks as in many respects an example to Christians, and presenting in lieu of the restrictions of Lutheran, Zwinglian and Anabaptist sects, the vision of an invisible spiritual church, universal in its scope.
In lieu of personal participation in crusades, might help; the fatal policy of razzias against the neighbouring Mahommedan powers might procure temporary resources; but what was really necessary was a wide measure of native taxation, such as was once, and once only, attempted in 1183.
His functions were those of a secretary; and, though he profited by benefices conferred on him in lieu of salary, he remained a layman to the end of his life.
The principal event of his reign was the rebellion of the thakurs in 1883, owing to an attempt to increase the dues payable in lieu of military service; this led to the permanent location at Bikanir of a British political agent.
Many suffered under this law, but the ultimate effect was to invest the press with new popularity, and very soon the newspapers conceived a device which effectually protected their literary staff, for they employed dummy editors whose sole function was to go to prison in lieu of the true editor.
P. Parthenium eximium, 2 ft., is a handsome double white form of ornamental character for the mixed border; P. uliginosum, 5 to 6 ft., has fine large, white, radiate flowers in October; P. Tchihatchewii, a close-growing, dense evergreen, creeping species, with long-stalked, white flower-heads, is adapted for covering slopes in lieu of turf, and for rockwork.
English mayors' and civic officials' robes are frequently trimmed with this fur in lieu of sable.
In lieu of calling the different subsidiary associations by the ordinary term " Lodges," the name was given of " Habitations," which could be constituted with thirteen members.
Another third comes from the Dominion subsidy, granted in lieu of the power of indirect taxation, and the remainder from the sale or lease of crown lands, timber and minerals.
In the following year ai~ther firman bestowed upon him the title of khedive in lieu of that of vali, borne by Mehemet Ali and his immediate successors.
The bishops have fixed salaries in lieu of tithes appropriated by the state.
Its massive Roman walls still survive, and recent excavations have revealed a town hall and market square, a temple, baths, amphitheatre, and many comfortable houses with mosaics, &c. An inscription shows that under the Roman Empire it was the chef-lieu of the Silures, whose ordo or county council provided for the local government of the district.
Since 1882 he has received Rs.25,000 as government rent for the Quetta district, besides Rs.30,000 in lieu of transit duties in the Bolan; this has been increased lately by Rs.9000 as already stated.
These negotiations proved fruitless, and in 1904 Bolivia accepted a pecuniary indemnity in lieu of territory.
Formerly 2700 retired seamen were boarded within it, and 5000 or 6000 others, called outpensioners, received stipends at various rates out of its funds; but in 1865 an act was passed empowering the Admiralty to grant liberal pensions in lieu of food and lodging to such of the inmates as were willing to quit the hospital, and in 1869 another act was passed making their leaving on these conditions compulsory.
He captured it in 1215, but it was not till 1284 that it was adopted as the imperial residence in lieu of Karakorum in the Mongol steppes by his grandson Kublai.
The most important French lake is that of Grand-Lieu, between Nantes and Pairnbceuf (Loire-Infrieure), which presents a surface of 17,300 acres.
(4) Population municipale agglomre au chef-lieu de la commune, which embraces the urban population as opposed to the rural population.
He may either dismiss the case at once by an order of non-lieu, or order it to be tried, when the prosecution is undertaken.
URICONIUM (more correctly Viroconium), a large RomanoBritish country town, chef-lieu of the Cornovii, now Wroxeter on the Severn, 5.
Since then the most important change in Baluch administration has been the perpetual lease and transfer of management to British agency of the Nushki district and Niabat, with all rights, jurisdiction and administrative power, in lieu of a perpetual rent of Rs.9000 per annum.
There are also some small districts or dependencies generally held in fief, turyul, by princes or high functionaries who take the revenues in lieu of salaries, pensions, allowances, &c., and either themselves govern or appoint others to do so.
In these pieces, as in almost every production of his, in lieu of melody Liszt offers fragments of melody - touching and beautiful, it may be, or passionate, or tinged with triviality; in lieu of a rational distribution of centres of harmony in accordance with some definite plan, he presents clever combinations of chords and ingenious modulations from point to point; in lieu of musical logic and consistency of design, he is content with rhapsodical improvisation.
In 1806 he received in lieu of a pension the nominal office of the writership of the Edinburgh Gazette, with a salary of £300.
The islands retain the exemption from direct taxation which they enjoyed under the British protectorate; in lieu of this there is an ad valorem tax of 202% on exported oil and a tax of 6% on wine exported to Greek ports; these commodities are further liable to an export duty of 12%, which is levied on all agricultural produce and articles of local manufacture for the maintenance and construction of roads.
It was separated from the English Department, and undertook the inspection of higher class schools (public, endowed and voluntary), and two years later instituted a leaving certificate examination, the pass of which is accepted for most of the university and professional authorities in lieu of their preliminary examinations.
...1661-1662Herbert Jeffreys, Lieutenant Governor..1677-1678Sir Henry Chicheley, Deputy Governor.1678-1680Thomas, Lord Culpeper, Governor.1680-1683Nicholas Spencer, President of the Council.1683-1684Francis, Lord Howard of Effingham, Lieu tenant Governor.
In 1814, before the site of this proposed institution had been chosen, Thomas Jefferson was elected a trustee, and under his influence the legislature, in February 1816, authorized the establishment of Central College in lieu of Albemarle Academy.
Driven to desperation, Ismail made a virtue of necessity and accepted, in September 1878, in lieu of the Dual Control, a constitutional ministry, under the presidency of Nubar Pasha (qv.), with Rivers Wilson as minister of finance and de Blignires as minister of public works.
Tithes on houses or customary payments in lieu of tithes have, by local acts, in some cases been turned into church rates.
Cheetah.-Size of a small leopard and similar in colour, but has black spots in lieu of rings.