The Latin term " tractatus," and its derivatives, though of occasional occurrence in this sense from the 13th century onwards, only began to be commonly so employed, in lieu of the older technical terms " conventio publica," or " foedus," from the end of the r7th century.
The Ahoms retained the form of government in Assam peculiar to the Shan tribes, which may be briefly described as an organized system of personal service in lieu of taxation.
" Prestations " are payments in lieu of services (apart from military service) to the state, such as maintenance of highways, &c. - in effect, purchase of exoneration from forced labour.
Note should be made of a short treatise on La Formation francaise des anciens noms du lieu (1867); a memoir De l'ogive et de l'architecture dite ogivale (1850), where he gives his theory on the use of stone arches - important for the history of religious architecture; an article on L'Age de la cathedrale de Laon (1874), in which he fixed the exact date of the birth of Gothic architecture; Histoire du costume en France (1875; 2nd ed.
This land was divided between the stanitsas, at the rate of 81 acres per each soul, with special grants to officers (personal to some of them, in lieu of pensions), and leaving about one-third of the land as a reserve for the future.
He was lodged in `the Louvre, received the grant of an income equal to that he had hitherto enjoyed, and, with the title of "veteran pensioner" in lieu of that of "foreign associate" (conferred in 1772), the right of voting at the deliberations of the Academy.
Neisen and others to introduce glass valves in lieu of stop-cocks.
The latter are in fact little microscopes carrying a vernier etched on glass, in lieu of a filar micrometer.
Barbier, Rene Descartes, sa famille, son lieu de naissance, &c. (1901); Richard Lowndes, Rene Descartes, his Life and Meditations (London, 1878); J.
The colleges, though of a lower grade, are in most respects similar to the lyces, but they are financed by the communes: the professors may have certain less important qualifications in lieu of the agrgation.
At regular intervals the steamers of the Dutch Royal Steam Packet Company call at Dorey and other points, while administrative posts have been established elsewhere in lieu of others previously attempted but abandoned.
Another third comes from the Dominion subsidy, granted in lieu of the power of indirect taxation, and the remainder from the sale or lease of crown lands, timber and minerals.
(4) Population municipale agglomre au chef-lieu de la commune, which embraces the urban population as opposed to the rural population.
He may either dismiss the case at once by an order of non-lieu, or order it to be tried, when the prosecution is undertaken.
To his translation (1530) of a Latin Chronicle and Description of Turkey, by a Transylvanian captive, which had been prefaced by Luther, he added an appendix holding up the Turks as in many respects an example to Christians, and presenting in lieu of the restrictions of Lutheran, Zwinglian and Anabaptist sects, the vision of an invisible spiritual church, universal in its scope.
The public schools are supported by the income from a Federal grant of 2,000,000 acres of public land (given in lieu of the usual sixteenth and thirty-sixth sections) supplemented by state and local taxation.
In lieu of personal participation in crusades, might help; the fatal policy of razzias against the neighbouring Mahommedan powers might procure temporary resources; but what was really necessary was a wide measure of native taxation, such as was once, and once only, attempted in 1183.
His functions were those of a secretary; and, though he profited by benefices conferred on him in lieu of salary, he remained a layman to the end of his life.
The principal event of his reign was the rebellion of the thakurs in 1883, owing to an attempt to increase the dues payable in lieu of military service; this led to the permanent location at Bikanir of a British political agent.
During the Dec. armistice, Enver, then a lieu - tenant-colonel, was made chief-of-staff of the X.
In both chambers the exercise of some scientific profession is accepted in lieu of the pecuniary income.
Domestic animals have for representatives the horse (uma), a small beast with little beauty of form though possessing much hardihood and endurance; the ox (ushs)~mainly a beast of burden or draught; the pig (buta), very occasionally; the dog (mu), an unsightly and useless brute; the cat (neko), with a stump in lieu of a tail; barndoor fowl (niwa-tori), ducks (ahiro) and pigeons (hato).
Many suffered under this law, but the ultimate effect was to invest the press with new popularity, and very soon the newspapers conceived a device which effectually protected their literary staff, for they employed dummy editors whose sole function was to go to prison in lieu of the true editor.
In the beginning of March 1921, direct negotiation between Poland and Lithuania under the aus p ices of the League of Nations, to be followed by arbitration on unsettled points, was proposed in lieu of the plebiscite and agreed to by all parties.
Already Philo says " the Logos is the master of the spiritual drinking-feast," and " let Melchisedeck " - the Logos - " in lieu of water offer wine to souls and inebriate them " (De somn.
In lieu of the sovereignty of Tuscany, he obtained in 1802 the electorship of Salzburg, which he exchanged by the peace of Pressburg in 1805 for that of Wiirzburg.
Meanwhile, at Oxford a proposal practically making Greek optional with all undergraduates was rejected, in November 1902, by 189 votes to 166; a preliminary proposal permitting students of mathematics or natural science to offer one or more modern languages in lieu of Greek was passed by 164 to 162 in February 1904, but on the 29th of November the draft of a statute to this effect was thrown out by 200 to 164.
P. Parthenium eximium, 2 ft., is a handsome double white form of ornamental character for the mixed border; P. uliginosum, 5 to 6 ft., has fine large, white, radiate flowers in October; P. Tchihatchewii, a close-growing, dense evergreen, creeping species, with long-stalked, white flower-heads, is adapted for covering slopes in lieu of turf, and for rockwork.
English mayors' and civic officials' robes are frequently trimmed with this fur in lieu of sable.
In lieu of calling the different subsidiary associations by the ordinary term " Lodges," the name was given of " Habitations," which could be constituted with thirteen members.
In the following year ai~ther firman bestowed upon him the title of khedive in lieu of that of vali, borne by Mehemet Ali and his immediate successors.
These negotiations proved fruitless, and in 1904 Bolivia accepted a pecuniary indemnity in lieu of territory.
Since then the most important change in Baluch administration has been the perpetual lease and transfer of management to British agency of the Nushki district and Niabat, with all rights, jurisdiction and administrative power, in lieu of a perpetual rent of Rs.9000 per annum.
Since 1882 he has received Rs.25,000 as government rent for the Quetta district, besides Rs.30,000 in lieu of transit duties in the Bolan; this has been increased lately by Rs.9000 as already stated.
There are also some small districts or dependencies generally held in fief, turyul, by princes or high functionaries who take the revenues in lieu of salaries, pensions, allowances, &c., and either themselves govern or appoint others to do so.
In these pieces, as in almost every production of his, in lieu of melody Liszt offers fragments of melody - touching and beautiful, it may be, or passionate, or tinged with triviality; in lieu of a rational distribution of centres of harmony in accordance with some definite plan, he presents clever combinations of chords and ingenious modulations from point to point; in lieu of musical logic and consistency of design, he is content with rhapsodical improvisation.
In 1806 he received in lieu of a pension the nominal office of the writership of the Edinburgh Gazette, with a salary of £300.
Its massive Roman walls still survive, and recent excavations have revealed a town hall and market square, a temple, baths, amphitheatre, and many comfortable houses with mosaics, &c. An inscription shows that under the Roman Empire it was the chef-lieu of the Silures, whose ordo or county council provided for the local government of the district.
The islands retain the exemption from direct taxation which they enjoyed under the British protectorate; in lieu of this there is an ad valorem tax of 202% on exported oil and a tax of 6% on wine exported to Greek ports; these commodities are further liable to an export duty of 12%, which is levied on all agricultural produce and articles of local manufacture for the maintenance and construction of roads.
It was separated from the English Department, and undertook the inspection of higher class schools (public, endowed and voluntary), and two years later instituted a leaving certificate examination, the pass of which is accepted for most of the university and professional authorities in lieu of their preliminary examinations.
...1661-1662Herbert Jeffreys, Lieutenant Governor..1677-1678Sir Henry Chicheley, Deputy Governor.1678-1680Thomas, Lord Culpeper, Governor.1680-1683Nicholas Spencer, President of the Council.1683-1684Francis, Lord Howard of Effingham, Lieu tenant Governor.
In 1814, before the site of this proposed institution had been chosen, Thomas Jefferson was elected a trustee, and under his influence the legislature, in February 1816, authorized the establishment of Central College in lieu of Albemarle Academy.