SCHWENKFELD,' 'KASPAR (1490-1561), of Ossing, German theologian, was born in 1490, and after studying at Cologne and other universities served in various minor courts of Silesia, finally entering the service of the duke of Liegnitz, over whom he had great influence.
On his return to Liegnitz he helped to spread the principles of the Reformation in the principality and in Silesia, while warning his colleagues against the abuse of the doctrine of justification by faith.
Letters and writings of his own (1527-1528) proved him to hold strongly anti-Lutheran heresies, and both Catholics and Lutherans urged the duke of Liegnitz to dismiss him.
He voluntarily left Liegnitz in 1529, and lived at Strasburg for five years amongst the Reformed clergy there.
Nevertheless the book was eagerly sought, and several editions of it appeared.4 Mention must be made of a medical treatise by Caspar Schwenckfeld, published at Liegnitz in 1603, under the title of Theriotropheum Silesiae, the fourth book of which consists of an " Aviarium Silesiae," and is the earliest of the works we now know by the name of fauna.
LIEGNITZ, a town in Germany, in the Prussian province of Silesia, picturesquely situated on the Katzbach, just above its junction with the Schwarzwasser, and 40 m.
The most prominent building is the palace, formerly the residence of the dukes of Liegnitz, rebuilt after a fire in 1835 and now used as the administrative offices of the district.
Liegnitz is first mentioned in an historical document in the year 1004.
In 1163 it became the seat of the dukes of Liegnitz, who greatly improved and enlarged it.
During the Thirty Years' War Liegnitz was taken by the Swedes, but was soon recaptured by the Imperialists.
The Saxon army also defeated the imperial troops near Liegnitz in 1634.
On the death of the last duke of Liegnitz in 1675, the duchy came into the possession of the Empire, which retained it until the Prussian conquest of Silesia in 1742.
On the 15th of August 1760 Frederick the Great gained a decisive victory near Liegnitz over the Austrians, and in August 1813 Blucher defeated the French in the neighbourhood at the battle of the Katzbach.
During the Igth century Liegnitz rapidly increased in population and prosperity.
See Schuchard, Die Stadt Liegnitz (Berlin, 1868); Sammter and Kraffert, Chronik von Liegnitz (Liegnitz, 1861-1873); Jander, Liegnitz in seinem Entwickelungsgange (Liegnitz, 1905); and Fiihrer fur Liegnitz and seine Umgebung (Liegnitz, 1897); and the Urkundenbuch der Stadt Liegnitz bis 1455, edited by Schirrmacher (Liegnitz, 1866).
They invaded Europe about 1237 under the leadership of Bail Khan, a younger son of Juji, eldest son of Jenghiz Khan, passed over Russia with slaughter and destruction, and penetrated into Silesia, Poland and Hungary, finally defeating Henry II., duke of Silesia, at Liegnitz in the battle known as the Wahlstatt on the 9th of April 1241.
A compromise was arrived at in 1686, by which the elector received the lordship of Schwiebus on renouncing his claims to the principalities of Liegnitz, Brieg and Wohlau.
Pursuing his way to Silesia, Batu overthrew the confederated Silesian princes at Liegnitz (April 9), and, after burning all the Silesian towns, invaded Hungary, where he routed King Bela IV.
And is the largest in Prussia, is divided into three governmental districts, those of Liegnitz and Breslau comprising lower Silesia, and of Oppeln taking in the greater part of mountainous Silesia.
The soil along the foot of the mountains is generally good, and the district between Ratibor and Liegnitz, where 70 to 80% of the surface is under the plough, is reckoned one of the most fertile in Germany.
The districts of Oppeln and Liegnitz are among the most richly wooded parts of Prussia.
The towns next in point of size are Gorlitz, Liegnitz, K6nigshiitte, Beuthen, Schweidnitz, Neisse and Glogau.
The government divisions of Breslau and Oppeln together form the district of the 6th army corps with its headquarters at Breslau, while Liegnitz belongs to that of the 5th army corps, the headquarters of which are at Posen.
The growing resources of the Silesian duchies are exemplified by the strength of the army with which Henry II., duke of Lower Silesia, broke the force of the Mongol invasion at the battle of Liegnitz (1241), and by the glamour at the court of the Minnesinger, Henry IV.
Thus by the end of the 14th century the country had been split up into 18 principalities: Breslau, Brieg, Glogau, Jauer, Liegnitz, Miinsterberg, Ols, Schweidnitz and Steinau in Lower Silesia; Beuthen, Falkenberg, Kosel, Neisse, Oppeln, Ratibor, Strehlitz, Teschen and Troppau in the upper district.
Availing himself of a testamentary union made in 1 537 between the duke of Liegnitz and the elector of Brandenburg, and of an attempt by the elector Frederick William to call it into force in spite of its annulment by Ferdinand I.
Of Prussia raised a claim to the former duchies of Liegnitz, Brieg, Jagerndorf and Wohlau.
Cotton spinning and weaving are not confined to one district, but 60 are prosecuted in upper Alsace (MUihausen, Gebweiler, 25, 0 Colmar), in Saxony (Zwickau, Chemnitz, Annaberg), in 35,700 Silesia (Breslau, Liegnitz), in the Rhine province (Dssel 44,700 dorf, Mflnster, Cologne), in Erfurt and Hanover, in 50,900 Wrttember~ (Reutlingen, Cannstatt), in Baden, Bavaria 52, 00 - (Augsburg, Bamberg, Bayreuth) and in the Palatinate.
This came from the Mongols who ravaged the eastern frontiers of the country, but the peril was warded off by the efforts of Henry II., duke of Silesia, who lost his life in a fight against these foes near Liegnitz in April 1241, and of Wenceslaus I., king of Bohemia.
But he soon recovered from his despair, and in 1760 gained the important victories of Liegnitz and Torgau.
In 1537 Frederick II., duke of Liegnitz, Brieg and Wohlau, concluded with Joachim II., elector of Brandenburg, a treaty according to which his duchy was to pass to the house of Brandenburg in the event of the extinction of his line.