In 1857 Pasteur decisively proved that fermentation was a physiological process, for he showed that the yeast which produced fermentation was no dead mass, as assumed by Liebig, but consisted of living organisms capable of growth and multiplication.
Liebig and Pasteur were in agreement on the point that fermentation is intimately connected with the presence of yeast in the fermenting liquid, but their explanations concerning the mechanism of fermentation were quite opposed.
Von Liebig (1823), who heated a mixture of alcohol, nitric acid and mercuric nitrate; the salt is largely manufactured by processes closely resembling the last.
The researches of Liebig (1823), Liebig and Gay-Lussac (1824), and of Liebig again in 1838 showed the acid to be isomeric with cyanic acid, and probably (Hcno) 2, since it gave mixed and acid salts.
The cattle are destined chiefly for the saladero establishments for the preparation of tasajo, or jerked beef, for the Brazilian and Cuban markets, and for the Liebig factory, where large quantities of extract of meat are prepared for the European trade.
After working under Leopold Gmelin at Heidelberg, and Liebig at Giessen, he spent three years in Paris studying the higher mathematics under Comte.
Explanations had indeed been put forward by men as eminent as Berzelius and Liebig, but they lacked experimental foundation.
In 1840 the appearance of Chemistry in its Application to Agriculture and Physiology by Justus von Liebig set on foot a movement in favour of scientific husbandry, the most notable outcome of which was the establishment by Sir John Bennet Lawes in 1843 of the experimental station of Rothamsted.
He was a most prolific writer, 364 papers appearing under his name in the Royal Society's Catalogue, and he carried on a large correspondence with other men of science, such as Berzelius, Faraday, Liebig and Wohler.
But the real founder of systematic instruction in our science was Justus von Liebig, who, having accepted the professorship at Giessen in 1824, made his chemical laboratory and course of instruction the model of all others.
The pattern set by Liebig at Giessen was adopted by F.
These two works, and especially the latter, were the models followed by Thenard, Liebig, Strecker, Wohler and many others, including Thomas Graham, upon whose Elements of Chemistry was founded Otto's famous Lehrbuch der Chemie, to which H.
Of the earlier encyclopaedias we may notice the famous HandwOrterbuch der reinen and angewandten Chemie, edited by Liebig; Fremy's Encyclopedie de chimie, Wurtz's Dictionnaire de chimie pure et applique'e, Watts' Dictionary of Chemistry, and Ladenburg's HandwOrterbuch der Chemie.
Von Liebig in establishing the doctrine of the characterization and basicity of acids.
The classical investigation of Liebig and Friedrich Wihler on the radical of benzoic acid (" Uber das Radikal der Benzoesaure," Ann.
This view was modified by Liebig, who regarded ether as ethyl oxide, and alcohol as the hydrate of ethyl oxide; here, however, he was in error, for he attributed to alcohol a molecular weight double its true value.
Notwithstanding these errors, the value of the " ethyl theory " was perceived; other radicals - formyl, methyl, amyl, acetyl, &c. - were characterized; Dumas, in 1837, admitted the failure of the etherin theory; and, in company with Liebig, he defined organic chemistry as the " chemistry of compound radicals."
Vigorous opposition was made by Liebig and Berzelius, the latter directing his attack against Dumas, whom he erroneously believed to be the author of what was, in his opinion, a pernicious theory.
But he fought in a futile cause; to explain the facts put forward by Dumas he had to invent intricate and involved hypotheses, which, it must be said, did not meet with general acceptance; Liebig seceded from him, and invited Wohler to endeavour to correct him.
At the same time, however, the conception of radicals could not be entirely displaced, for the researches of Liebig and Welder, and those made subsequently by Bunsen, demonstrated beyond all doubt the advantages which would accrue from their correct recognition.
Similarly he represented the reactions investigated by Liebig and Wehler on benzoyl compounds as double decompositions.
Wurtz discovered the amines or substituted ammonias, previously predicted by Liebig; A.
Von Liebig discovered, in 1834, an interesting aromatic compound, potassium carbon monoxide or potassium hexaoxybenzene, the nature of which was satisfactorily cleared up by R.
Liebig; and certain others based on a different procedure have been suggested.
Von Liebig (Ann., 1908, 360, p. 128), from a very complete discussion of triphenyl methane derivatives, concluded that the group i ng A A A was the only true organic chromophore, colour production, however, requiring another condition, usually the closing of a ring.
With the intention of taking up pharmacy he entered Heidelberg University about 1835, and after graduating went to Giessen as preparateur to Liebig, with whom he elucidated the composition of paraldehyde and metaldehyde.
He was a contributor to the Handworterbuch of Liebig, Willer and Poggendorff, and to the Graham-Otto Textbook of Chemistry, and for many years was a member of the committee of revision of the Pharmacopoeia Germanica.
Liebig (Annalen, 18 35, 14, p. 1 33).
Liebig in 1829 showed that it differed from benzoic acid, and in 1839 determined its constitution, while in 1853 V.
It was the concepts derived from the experimental methods of Harvey, Lavoisier, Liebig, Claude Bernard, Helmholtz, Darwin, Pasteur, Lister and others which, directly or indirectly, trained the eyes of clinicians to observe more closely and accurately; and not of clinicians only, but also of pathologists, such as Matthew Baillie, Cruveilhier, Rokitansky, Bright, Virchowto name but a few of those who, with (as must be admitted) new facilities for necropsies, began to pile upon us discoveries in morbid anatomy and histology.
From 1847 to 1851 he was engaged at Brunswick in editing the Dictionary of Chemistry started by Liebig, but in the latter year he went to Marburg as successor to Bunsen in the chair of chemistry.
LIEBIG, JUSTUS VON, Baron (1803-1873), German chemist, was born at Darmstadt, according to his baptismal certificate, on the 12th of May 1803 (4th of May, according to his mother).
No laboratories were accessible to ordinary students, who had to content themselves with what the universities could give in the lectureroom and the library, and though both at Bonn and Erlangen Liebig endeavoured to make up for the deficiencies of the official instruction by founding a students' physical and chemical society for the discussion of new discoveries and speculations, he felt that he could never become a chemist in his own country.
Further, it gave a great impetus to the progress of chemical education throughout Germany, for the continued admonitions of Liebig combined with the influence of his pupils induced many other universities to build laboratories modelled on the same plan.
A continuation of their work on bitter almond oil by Liebig and Wohler, who remained firm friends for the rest of their lives, resulted in the elucidation of the mode of formation of that substance and in the discovery of the ferment emulsin as well as the recognition of the first glucoside, amygdalin, while another and not less important and far-reaching inquiry in 'which they collaborated was that on uric acid, published in 1837.
Liebig also did much to further the hydrogen theory of acids.
See The Life Work of Liebig (London, 1876), by his pupil A.
Shenstone, Justus von Liebig, his Life and Work (1895).
In modern times the laboratory practice of distillation was greatly facilitated by the introduction of the condenser named after Justus von Liebig; A.
For less volatile liquids the Liebig condenser is most frequently used.
Prior to 1830, little was known of the process other than that organic compounds generally yielded tarry and solid matters, but the discoveries of Liebig and Dumas (of acetone from acetates), of Mitscherlich (of benzene from benzoates) and of Persoz (of methane from acetates and lime) brought the operation into common laboratory practice.
And the elector Maximilian I., the obelisk erected to the 30,000 Bavarians who perished in Napoleon's expedition to Moscow, the Wittelsbach fountain (1895), the monument commemorative of the peace of 1871, and the marble statue of Justus Liebig, the chemist, set up in 1883.
After attending the gymnasium of his native town, he studied at Marburg and Heidelberg, and then, attracted by the fame of Liebig, went in 1839 to Giessen, where he became a privatdozent in 1841, and professor of chemistry twelve years later.
In addition he wrote (1863) on theoretical and physical chemistry for the Graham-Otto Lehrbuch der Chemie, and for many years assisted Liebig in editing the Annalen der Chemie and the Jahresbericht.
Von Liebig, Reichenhall, sein Klima and seine Heilmittel (6th ed., Reichenhall, 1889); and Goldschmidt, Der Kuron Bad Reichenhall and seine Umgebung (Vienna, 1892).
Liebig promoted his doctrine of polybasic acids.
Graham's work was developed by Liebig, who called into service many organic acids - citric, tartaric, cyanuric, comenic and meconic - and showed that these resembled phosphoric acid; and he established as the criterion of polybasicity the existence of compound salts with different metallic oxides.
In formulating these facts Liebig at first retained the dualistic conception of the structure of acids; but he shortly afterwards perceived that this view lacked generality since the halogen acids, which contained no oxygen but yet formed salts exactly similar in properties to those containing oxygen, could not be so regarded.
The hydrogen theory and the doctrine of polybasicity as enunciated by Liebig is the fundamental characteristic of the modern theory.
According to Liebig, potassium is the essential alkali of the animal body; and it may be noted that sheep excrete most of the potassium which they take from the land as sweat, one-third of the weight of raw merino consisting of potassium compounds.
Liebig, Ann., 1832, I, p. 198).
In 1843, and after working under Liebig at Giessen was appointed chemist to the Munich mint in 1845.
It was first isolated in 1803 and was the subject of an important investigation by v.Liebig in 1837 (Annalen,1837,22, p.1).
Liebig, Ann., 1832, r, p. 199), by heating chloral with alkalis (Liebig), CC1 3 CHO + NaHO = CHC1 3 + NaHCO 2, or by heating trichloracetic acid with ammonia (J.
Wohler had made the acquaintance of Liebig, his junior by three years, in 1825, and the two men remained close friends and allies for the rest of their lives.
He assisted Liebig and Poggendorff in the Handworterbuch der reinen and angewandten Chemie, and was jointeditor with Liebig of the Annalen der Chemie and Pharmacie.
When Wohler, in 1825, analysed his cyanic acid, and Liebig his quite different fulminic acid in 1824, the composition of both compounds proved to be absolutely the same, containing each in round numbers 28% of carbon, 33% of nitrogen, 37% of oxygen and 2% of hydrogen.
While studying architecture at Giessen he came under the influence of Liebig and was induced to take up chemistry.
Liebig (Ann., 18 53, 8 5, p. 289) precipitates dilute solutions of urea with a dilute standard solution of mercuric nitrate, using alkaline carbonate as indicator.
According to Liebig, man's body is a stove, and food the fuel which keeps up the internal combustion in the lungs.