Von Liebig attacked the doctrine that fermentation was caused by micro-organisms, and enunciated his theory of mechanical decomposition.
In 1857 Pasteur decisively proved that fermentation was a physiological process, for he showed that the yeast which produced fermentation was no dead mass, as assumed by Liebig, but consisted of living organisms capable of growth and multiplication.
Liebig and Pasteur were in agreement on the point that fermentation is intimately connected with the presence of yeast in the fermenting liquid, but their explanations concerning the mechanism of fermentation were quite opposed.
Von Liebig (1823), who heated a mixture of alcohol, nitric acid and mercuric nitrate; the salt is largely manufactured by processes closely resembling the last.
The researches of Liebig (1823), Liebig and Gay-Lussac (1824), and of Liebig again in 1838 showed the acid to be isomeric with cyanic acid, and probably (Hcno) 2, since it gave mixed and acid salts.
Fulminuric acid, (Hcno) 3, obtained by Liebig by boiling mercuric fulminate with water, was synthesized in 1905 by C. Ulpiani and L.
The cattle are destined chiefly for the saladero establishments for the preparation of tasajo, or jerked beef, for the Brazilian and Cuban markets, and for the Liebig factory, where large quantities of extract of meat are prepared for the European trade.
After working under Leopold Gmelin at Heidelberg, and Liebig at Giessen, he spent three years in Paris studying the higher mathematics under Comte.
Explanations had indeed been put forward by men as eminent as Berzelius and Liebig, but they lacked experimental foundation.
In 1840 the appearance of Chemistry in its Application to Agriculture and Physiology by Justus von Liebig set on foot a movement in favour of scientific husbandry, the most notable outcome of which was the establishment by Sir John Bennet Lawes in 1843 of the experimental station of Rothamsted.
He was a most prolific writer, 364 papers appearing under his name in the Royal Society's Catalogue, and he carried on a large correspondence with other men of science, such as Berzelius, Faraday, Liebig and Wohler.
But the real founder of systematic instruction in our science was Justus von Liebig, who, having accepted the professorship at Giessen in 1824, made his chemical laboratory and course of instruction the model of all others.
The pattern set by Liebig at Giessen was adopted by F.
These two works, and especially the latter, were the models followed by Thenard, Liebig, Strecker, Wohler and many others, including Thomas Graham, upon whose Elements of Chemistry was founded Otto's famous Lehrbuch der Chemie, to which H.
Of the earlier encyclopaedias we may notice the famous HandwOrterbuch der reinen and angewandten Chemie, edited by Liebig; Fremy's Encyclopedie de chimie, Wurtz's Dictionnaire de chimie pure et applique'e, Watts' Dictionary of Chemistry, and Ladenburg's HandwOrterbuch der Chemie.
Von Liebig in establishing the doctrine of the characterization and basicity of acids.
To this problem there was added another in about the third decade of the 19th century - namely, to determine the manner in which the atoms composing the radical were combined; this supplementary 'requisite was due to the discovery of the isomerism of silver fulminate and silver cyanate by Justus von Liebig in 1823, and to M.
The classical investigation of Liebig and Friedrich Wihler on the radical of benzoic acid (" Uber das Radikal der Benzoesaure," Ann.
This view was modified by Liebig, who regarded ether as ethyl oxide, and alcohol as the hydrate of ethyl oxide; here, however, he was in error, for he attributed to alcohol a molecular weight double its true value.
Notwithstanding these errors, the value of the " ethyl theory " was perceived; other radicals - formyl, methyl, amyl, acetyl, &c. - were characterized; Dumas, in 1837, admitted the failure of the etherin theory; and, in company with Liebig, he defined organic chemistry as the " chemistry of compound radicals."
Vigorous opposition was made by Liebig and Berzelius, the latter directing his attack against Dumas, whom he erroneously believed to be the author of what was, in his opinion, a pernicious theory.
But he fought in a futile cause; to explain the facts put forward by Dumas he had to invent intricate and involved hypotheses, which, it must be said, did not meet with general acceptance; Liebig seceded from him, and invited Wohler to endeavour to correct him.
At the same time, however, the conception of radicals could not be entirely displaced, for the researches of Liebig and Welder, and those made subsequently by Bunsen, demonstrated beyond all doubt the advantages which would accrue from their correct recognition.
Similarly he represented the reactions investigated by Liebig and Wehler on benzoyl compounds as double decompositions.
Wurtz discovered the amines or substituted ammonias, previously predicted by Liebig; A.
According to Liebig, man's body is a stove, and food the fuel which keeps up the internal combustion in the lungs.