A drunken libertine and a cruel tyrant ~ (May 1849); the latter was assassinated in 1854, and a regency under his widow, Marie Louise, was insti tuted during which the government became somewhat more tolerable, although by no means free from political persecution; in 1857 the Austrian troops evacuated the duchy.
Though a libertine and a free-thinker, he had championed the most bigoted and tyrannical high-church measures.
The Roman Catholics, though still in the majority in the bishopric, had little influence on the politics of the city, where the aristocrats inclined to the moderate (libertine) opinions advocated by the preacher Hubrecht Duifhuis, while the democrats were organized in the new church order introduced by the uncompromising Calvinist Petrus Dathenus (d.
He was badly brought up by a feeble father, a mother who combined immorality with religion, and a libertine abbe.
Archbishop Christopher of BrunswickWolfenbuttel (1487-1558), a brutal libertine, hated for his lusts and avarice, looked on the reforming movement as a revolt against himself.
(See Ferdinand Iv., king of Naples.) Ferdinand died in 1825, and his son and successor, Francis I., an unbridled libertine, at once threw off the mask of Liberalism; the corruption of the administration under Medici assumed unheard-of proportions, and every office was openly sold.
As he characterized his opponents in general as the "pestilent herd of libertine scribblers with which the island is overrun," it is no matter of surprise that the book made him many bitter enemies.