In Spain and Portugal, and also in Belgium, a Liberalism inimical to the Church was in power.
For years he and his friends educated public opinion by issuing innumerable pamphlets in which the new Liberalism was eloquently expounded.
Liberalism In Piedmont, in spite of the governments reactionary and methods, a large part of the population were genuinely ~ attached to the Savoy dynasty, and the idea of a regenera- meat tion of Italy under its auspices began to gain ground.
The new pope, who while bishop of Imole had evinced a certain interest in Liberalism, was a kindly man, of inferior intelligence, who thought that all difficulties could be settled with a little good-will, some reforms and a political amnesty.
He had little sympathy with Liberalism and abhorred revolution, but his hatred of Austria and his resentment at the galling tutelage to which she subjected him had gained strength year by year.
He was, moreover, an Imperialist and a Colonial Federationist at a time when Liberalism was tied and bound to the Manchester traditions; and, to the consternation of, the official wire-pullers, he vigorously supported Disraeli's foreign policy, and in 1881 opposed the Gladstonian settlement with the Boers.
The liberty of the press not unfrequently degenerated into licence, and sane liberalism was often replaced by socialistic dreaming.
(1881-94), who had never sympathized with liberalism 1881-94.
His liberalism in politics having brought him into conflict with the university authorities of Giessen, he exchanged that university for GÃ¶ttingen in 1816, and three years later received a chair at the new university of Bonn, where he established the art museum and the library, of which he became the first librarian.
Population.-Up to the War of Independence the population was not only American, but it was in its ideas and standards essentially Puritan; modern liberalism, however, has introduced new standards of social life.
Ranke, contemptuous in politics, as in history, of the men who warped facts to support some abstract theory, especially disliked the doctrinaire liberalism so fashionable at the time.
Though he was always an enemy to liberalism, his natural independence of character prevented him from acquiescing in the reactionary measures of the king.
Governor Miguel de la Torre, who ruled the island with vice-regal powers during the second period of Ferdinand's absolutism, sternly repressed all attempts at liberalism, and made the island the resort for loyal refugees from the Spanish mainland.
His parliamentary career was marked by the same wide and candid liberalism as his private life.
The consistent firmness with which he adhered to the cause of constitutional liberalism during the many changes of his times gained him the highest respect of his countrymen, by whom he was styled the Aristides of the French tribune.
Cuba is overwhelmingly Roman Catholic in religion, but under the new Republic there is a complete separation of church and state, and liberalism and indifference are increasing.
His extreme liberalism prevented his opposing the spread of Socialist doctrines preached far and wide by Benjamin Constant.
Unfortunately, however, the brilliant epoch of the alliance of Liberalism and Catholicism, represented on its literary side by Chateaubriand and by Lamartine, to whose poetic school Herculano had belonged, was past, and fanatical attacks and the progress of events drove this former champion of the Church into conflict with the ecclesiastical authorities.
He had outgrown his early Liberalism and become the chief panegyrist of the house of Hohenzollern.
It was his whim, as part of his general liberalism, to depreciate the education he received; but it seems to have been a very sound and good education, which formed the basis of his extraordinarily wide, though never extraordinarily accurate, collection of knowledge subsequently, and (a more important thing) disciplined and exercised his literary faculty and judgment.
But the powers of the Grand Alliance had been watching the growth of Liberalism in France with increasing anxiety.
His literary output at this time, all inspired by a moderate Liberalism, was astounding, and included an essay on the results of the discovery of America, and another, written in French, on the English financial system (Essa y sur l'etat de l'administration des finances de la Grande-Bretagne, London, 1800).
But the Liberalism of his early years was gone for ever, and he had become reconciled to Metternich's view that, in an age of decay, the sole function of a statesman was to "prop up mouldering institutions."
The quarrel between Liberalism and Clericalism was, however, not ended.
The Revue nationale was the champion of Liberalism, and came to an end in 1847.
During his years of imprisonment he, like many others of his countrymen, was converted to liberalism on the French model.
His first task was to set his house in order; he reorganized the finances, created the army, and started Piedmont on a path which if not liberalism was at least progress.
Devout and mystical to an almost morbid degree, hating revolution and distrusting Liberalism, he was a confirmed pessimist, yet he had many noble qualities: he was brave to the verge of foolhardiness, devoted to his country, and ready to risk his crown to free Italy from the foreigner.
Under Charles Augustus Weimar became a centre of Liberalism as well as of art.
European Liberalism, too, gagged and fettered under Metternich's "system," recognized in the Greeks the champions of its own cause; while even conservative statesmen, schooled in the memories of ancient Hellas, saw in the struggle a fight of civilization against barbarism.
This adherence was, and still is, often only nominal, for the statistics take no note of the great mass of indifferentism and liberalism which prevails in the ranks of the Church.
Until the end of his life he remained a protagonist in theological controversy and a keen fighter against latitudinarianism and liberalism; but the sharpest religious or political differences never broke his personal friendships and his Christian charity.
Yet his liberalism was of the most cautious and moderate character, as the Opposition, shortly after his accession (March 8th, 1844), discovered to their great chagrin.
His ability and vigour were now generally recognized; but the strength of the socialist party, and the practical activity of its leader, still had to reckon with the equally practical and vigorous liberalism of M.
"There is no such thing as political experience," wrote Wellington, certainly no friend of Liberalism; "with the warning of James II.
To many minds the papacy thus came to represent a unifying principle, as opposed to the disruptive tendencies of Liberalism and Nationalism, and the papal monarchy came to be surrounded with a new halo, as in some sort realizing that ideal of a " federation of the world " after which the age was dimly feeling.
But Ancillon's reputed liberalism was of too invertebrate a type to survive the trial of actual contact with affairs.
The nickname cartridge-prince (Kartdtschenprinz) bestowed upon him during the troubles of 48 was undeserved; but he was notoriously opposed to Liberalism and, had he followed his own instincts, he would have modified the constitution in a reactionary sense.
The programme required the support of a Christian-Conservative tendency; it was to defend positive and historical law against Liberalism, and the rights of the individual states against the central power.
In 1884 a new development took place: u,nder the influence of Miquel a meeting was held at Heidelberg of the South German members of the party, who accepted the commercial and social policy of the government, including the Socialist law; their programme received Bismarcks approval, and was accepted by the rest of the patty, so that they henceforward were taken into favor by the government; but they had wpn the position by sacrificing almost all the characteristics of the older Liberalism the hope of a reunion for all the different sections which had hitherto kept the name of Liberal was at an end.
A similar movement began among the Protestants after the commercial crisis of 1873, which forms an epoch in German thought, since it was from that year that men first began to question the economic doctrines of Liberalism, and drew attention to the demoralization which seemed to arise from the freedom of speculation and the influence of the stock exchangea movement which in later years led to some remarkable attempts to remedy the evil by legislation.
A minister, Rudolph Todt, and Rudolph Meyer criticized the moral and economic doctrines of Liberalism; his writings led to the foundation of the ChristlichSoziale-Arbeilerverein, which for a few years attained considerable notoriety under the leadership of Adolph Stocker.
He had no sympathy with political liberalism, but throughout his long reign of forty-two years, with a constant interchange of ministries and many ministerial crises, he never had a serious conflict with the states-general, and his ministers could always count upon his fair-mindedness and an earnest desire to help them to further the national welfare.
But it gave cohesion and voice to philosophic radicalism; it was the manifesto of a school without which liberalism of the present day had not been.
Charles Louis, the opera Douffe duke of Lucca, who had coquetted with Liberalism in the past, now refused to make any concessions to his subjects, and in Ferdinand III.
During the first years of the French Revolution Catherine's sympathy with philosophic liberalism rapidly evaporated, and the European sovereigns to the democratic movement; but she carefully abstained from joining the Coalition, and waited patiently for the moment when the complications in western Europe would give her an opportunity of solving independently the Eastern Question in accordance with Russian interests.
When Nicholas an influential deputation from the province of Tver, which had long enjoyed a reputation for liberalism, ventured to hint in a loyal address that the time had come for changes in the existing autocratic regime, they received a reply which showed that the emperor had no intention of making any such changes.
With the outside world cut off; until at last the government was forced to yield, and on the 17/30th of tionstitu- October 1 05 the tsar issued the famous manifesto tional 9 manifesto promising to Russia a constitution based on the of October main principles of modern Liberalism: national re 1 9 /5.
The congress of zemstvos, hitherto the focus of Liberalism, had petitioned the government, before the opening of the third Duma, to take measures for the restoration of order.
A university, founded in 1825, three colleges, one of them dating from colonial times, a medical school, and a public library, founded in 1821, are distinguishing features of the city, which has always taken high rank in Peru for its learning and liberalism, as well as for its political restlessness.
Lassalle, a democrat of the most advanced type, saw that an opportunity had come for asserting a third great cause - that of the working men - which would outflank the liberalism of the middle classes, and might even command the sympathy of the government.
From his first tutor, Johann Delbriick, he imbibed a love of culture and art, and possibly also the dash of Liberalism which formed an element of his complex habit of mind.
The ancient constitution, often suspended and modified, based upon this charter, was reformed under the influence of Western Liberalism in 1848, the supremacy of the Magyar race, however, being secured by a somewhat narrow franchise.
Refused him the cardinal's hat, and rebuked him for his liberalism in a letter which was probably not intended for publication.
His opposition to the extreme democratic and revolutionary party made him unpopular with the mob, who broke his windows, as his liberalism made him suspected at court.
His Liberalism found expression in the extension of press freedom, the repeal of imprisonment for debt, and the abolition of ecclesiastical tithes.
The influence of Liberalism, which served the government so well in this work of construction, brought about also the conflict K l~ with the Roman Catholic Church which distracted ksmpf.