For printing these Zenger was arrested for libel in November 1734.
It was a miserable libel and was at once rebutted by Goodyear.
They codify laws regarding libel and slander.
He was thereupon prosecuted for libel by the owner of the vessel, fined $50, mulcted in costs, and, in default of payment, committed to gaol.
For alleged libel on General Courtot de Cissey in this paper he was heavily fined.
In 62 he prevented the execution of the praetor Antistius, who had written a libel upon the emperor, and persuaded the senate to pass a milder sentence.
Previous to 1886 the crime of murder was only punishable by 10 years' imprisonment, a sentence which in practice was reduced to two-thirds of that term; slander and libel were formerly offences which the law had no power to restrain, and no responsibility attached to seditious publications.
Although shaken by the acquittal of William Hone on a charge of libel the government was supported by parliament; and after the "Manchester massacre" in August 1819 the home secretary thanked the magistrates and soldiers for their share in quelling the riot.
In 1873 he was defendant in a libel action brought against him by the Rev. R.
The first case which brought him prominently into notice and gave him assurance of ultimate success was the government prosecution, in 1752, of a bookseller, William Owen, for a libel on the House of Commons.
As a proof of Pratt's moderation in a period of passionate party warfare and frequent state trials, it is noted that this was the only official prosecution for libel which he set on foot.
Many libel actions were brought against it, but in 25 between 1897 and 1907 only three verdicts were given definitely against the paper.
Other notable trials in which he was concerned were the prosecution of Emile Zola for libel (1898), which arose out of the Dreyfus case; the Humbert affair (1902); and the trial of Madame Caillaux for the murder of M.
Committed to custody for a libel on his superior, James Montagu (1568?-1618), bishop of Bath and Wells.
His success as a dramatist had by this time gone some way to disabuse hostile critics of the suspicions as regards his personal character which had been excited by the apparent looseness of morals which since his Oxford days it had always pleased him to affect; but to the consternation of his friends, who had ceased to credit the existence of any real moral obliquity, in 1895 came fatal revelations as the result of his bringing a libel action against the marquis of Queensberry; and at the Old Bailey, in May, Wilde was sentenced to two years' imprisonment with hard labour for offences under the Criminal Law Amendment Act.
In 1763 he was condemned for blasphemous libel in his paper called the Free Enquirer (nine numbers only).
Zola's object was a prosecution for libel, and a judicial inquiry into the whole affaire, and at the trial, which took place in Paris in February, a fierce flood of light was thrown on the case.
Brooks (1819-1857), a congressman from South Carolina, suddenly confronted Sumner as he sat writing at his desk in the Senate chamber, denounced his speech as a libel upon his state and upon Butler, his relative, and before Sumner, pinioned by his desk, could make the slightest resistance, rained blow after blow upon his head, till his victim sank bleeding and unconscious upon the floor.
In which the name of no individual was mentioned as the author of an alleged libel on the king, contained in No.
Ing, but directed that he should be brought to trial within a year; the second increased the penalties for seditious libel; the third imposed the newspaper stamp duty on all pamphlets and the like containing news; the fourth (Seditious Meetings Act) once more greatly curtailed the liberty of public meetings; the fifth forbade the training of persons in the use of arms; the sixth empowered magistrates to search for and seize arms.
In 1907 Prince Billow was made the subject of a disgraceful libel, which received more attention than it deserved because it coincided with the Harden-Moltke scandals; his character was, however,completely vindicated,and the libeller, a journalist named Brand, received a term of imprisonment.
Lloyd was an indefatigable opponent of the Roman Catholic tendencies of James II., and was one of the seven bishops who for refusing to have the Declaration of Indulgence read in his diocese was charged with publishing a seditious libel against the king and acquitted (1688).
Popular Protestant feeling ran very high at the time, partly in consequence of the recent establishment of a Roman Catholic diocesan hierarchy by Pius IX., and criminal proceedings against Newman for libel resulted in an acknowledged gross miscarriage of justice.
When at the last moment war was averted by the surrender of Serbia and Russia, an attempt was made to withdraw the article, but the first copies had already been issued: and Count Aehrenthal now had the double embarrassment of the Zagreb trial, which no longer served any purpose of foreign policy, but suited the aggressive game of Budapest against Zagreb, and of a libel action brought against Friedjung by those leaders of the Serbo-Croat coalition whose honour he had impugned.
In this year he carried the Libel Bill.
Resisting Pitt's attempt to draw him into alliance against the ministry he had quitted, Yorke maintained, in a speech that extorted the highest eulogy from Walpole, that parliamentary privilege did not extend to cases of libel; though he agreed with Pitt in condemning the principle of general warrants.
Action for Libel AgainstTheomnestus, x., 384-383 B.
Shebbeare (1709-1788), a violent party writer of the day, for a libel against the government contained in his notorious Letters to the People of England, which were published in the years 1756-1758.
Human nature indignantly rejects her portrait in the Yahoo as a gross libel, and the protest is fully warranted.
Some thoughtful men saw clearly the danger of leaving Ireland to be seized by the first chance corner, and the Libel of English Policy, written about 1436, contains a long and interesting passage declaring England's interests in protecting Ireland as " a boterasse and a poste " of her own power.
The jurisdiction of a justice of the peace, usually coextensive with the county, extends to the collection of notes of hand not exceeding $1000; to the settlement of accounts not exceeding $500; to suits for the recovery of property or suits demanding payment for damages, except for libel or slander, not exceeding $500; to equity cases in which the amount in controversy does not exceed $50; and to various other small cases.
A libel suit he instituted in London against Sir Valentine Chirol for statements made in Indian Unrest (1910) ended in a verdict for the defendant with costs (Feb.
In 1841 Edward Moxon was found guilty of the publication of a blasphemous libel (Shelley's Queen Mab), the prosecution having been instituted by Henry Hetherington, who had previously been condemned to four months' imprisonment for a similar offence, and wished to test the law under which he was punished.
In the final judgment of the famous libel case of the Bombay Maharajas, before the Supreme Court of Bombay, in January 1862, these improprieties were severely commented upon; and though so unsparing a critic of Indian sects as Jogendra Nath seems not to believe in actual immoral practices on the part of the Maharajas, still he admits that "the corrupting influence of a religion, that can make its female votaries address amorous songs to their spiritual guides, must be very great."
In the following year Napper Tandy took a leading part in organizing a new military association in Ireland modelled after the French National Guards; they professed republican principles, and on their uniform the cap of liberty instead of the crown surmounted the Irish harp. Tandy also, with the purpose of bringing about a fusion between the Defenders and the United Irishmen, took the oath of the Defenders, a Roman Catholic society whose agrarian and political violence had been increasing for several years; but being threatened with prosecution for this step, and also for libel, he fled to America, where he remained till 1798.
He was sued for libel for printing a rebuke to some of his parishioners who had travestied the sacrament of the Lord's Supper; and after several years in the courts he was ordered to pay damages of £150, which was raised by his parishioners.
His own definition of blasphemous libel was enforced in the 1 Two of his later acts, allowing the defendant in an action for libel to prove veritas, and giving a right of action to the representatives of persons killed through negligence, also deserve mention.
Horne, thereupon, by a bold libel on the Speaker, drew public attention to the case, and though he himself was placed for a time in the custody of the serjeant-at-arms, the clauses which were injurious to the interest of Mr Tooke were eliminated from the bill.
Seven bishops refused, were indicted by James for libel, but acquitted amid the indescribable enthusiasm of the populace.
Defoe declared that Lord Annesley was preparing the army in Ireland to join a Jacobite rebellion, and was indicted for libel; and prior to his trial (1715) he published an apologia entitled An Appeal to Honour and Justice, in which he defended his political conduct.
In 1733 a popular organ, the New York Weekly Journal, was established under John Peter Zenger (1697-1746), and in 1735 both the freedom of the press and a great advance toward the independence of the judiciary were the outcome of a famous libel suit against Zenger.
He was imprisoned for seditious libel in 1840, and after his release became prominent for his attack on John Bright, and the anti-corn-law league.
The Libel of English Policie, a poem of the first half of the 15th century, says with reference to Iceland (chap. x.) "Out of Bristowe, and costes many one, Men haue practised by nedle and by stone Thider wardes within a litle while."
His extensive and exact legal erudition, and the skill with which he argued the intricate libel case of Lord Cromwell (4 Rep. 13), and the celebrated real property case of Shelley (1 Rep. 94, 104), soon brought him a practice never before equalled, and caused him to be universally recognized as the greatest lawyer of his day.
Even if his decision was brought about by libel on the part of the suitor's friend this was done, and the Code enacted that the faithless friend should not marry the girl.
The latter, indeed, prosecuted the former for libel and for abuse of his position when premier, but after many vicissitudes, including the flight of Giolitti to Berlin in.
Violently attacked by the Boulangist organs, L'Intransigeant and La France, he won a suit against them for libel, and in 1889 he contested the 18th arrondissement of Paris with General Boulanger, who obtained a majority of over 2000 votes, but was declared ineligible.
As a lawyer his greatest public efforts were his lectures (1799) at Lincoln's Inn on the law of nature and nations, of which the introductory discourse was published, and his eloquent defence (1803) of Jean Gabriel Peltier, a French refugee, tried at the instance of the French government for a libel against the first consul.
He was now elected professor of eloquence at the university or academy of Nimes, but not without a murderous attack upon him by one of the defeated candidates and his supporters, followed by a suit for libel, which, though he ultimately won his case, forced him to leave the town.
The chief and most galling of his critics at this time was the Abbe Desfontaines, and the chief of Desfontaines's attacks was entitled La Voltairomanie, in reply to a libel of Voltaire's called Le Preservatif.
The source of this equally absurd and infamous libel has never been discovered.
In June 1874 he was found guilty of a libel on Prince Bismarck, whom he had compared to Frederick II.
The tablet over Schomberg's grave contains what Macaulay called a "furious libel," though it only states that the duke's relatives refused the expense of the tablet.
Yorke refused to describe the libel as treasonable, while pronouncing it a high misdemeanour.
It is desultory to a degree; it is a base libel on religion and history; it differs from its model Ariosto in being, not, as Ariosto is, a mixture of romance and burlesque, but a sometimes tedious tissue of burlesque pure and simple; and it is exposed to the objection - often and justly urged - that much of its fun depends simply on the fact that there were and are many people who believe enough in Christianity to make its jokes give pain to them and to make their disgust at such jokes piquant to others.
Having been convicted of the libel he was liberated later in the year under circumstances that only became clear in 1864, when six letters were discovered in the Record Office from Defoe to a Government official, Charles Delaf aye, which, according to William Lee, established the fact that in 1718 at least Defoe was doing not only political work, but that it was of a somewhat equivocal kind - that he was, in fact, sub-editing the Jacobite Mist's Journal, under a secret agreement with the government that he should tone down the sentiments and omit objectionable items. He had, in fact, been released on condition of becoming a government agent.
This silly libel so enraged the performers at the Opera that they hanged and burned with him, the Dijon academy, which had founded his fame, announced the subject of "The Origin of Inequality," on which he wrote a discourse which was unsuccessful, but at least equal to the former in merit.
In a suit for libel brought against him in the High Court at Bombay in 1862, he won a victory on the main issue.
In the following year he published An Answere to a Certain Libel intituled an Admonition to the Parliament, which led to further controversy between the two divines.
Henceforth, in spite of press prosecutions and trials for political libel, the government was supported by public opinion in its vigorous prosecution of the war.
Giusto Fontanini's Storia arcana della vita di Pietro Sarpi (1863), a bitter libel, is nevertheless important for the letters of Sarpi it contains, as Griselini's Memorie e aneddote (1760) is from the author's access to Sarpi's unpublished writings, afterwards unfortunately destroyed by fire.