The days on which the Pithoigia and Chas were celebrated were both regarded as Corotpbses (nefasti) and µcapai ("defiled"), necessitating expiatory libations; on them the souls of the dead came up from the underworld and walked abroad; people chewed leaves of whitethorn and besmeared their doors with tar to protect themselves from evil.
Complete scenes of worship in which libations are poured before the Sacred Axes are, moreover, given on a fine painted sarcophagus found at Hagia Triada.
It was pre-eminently the period of exultation in ancient Jewish rite, and the Mishnah declares that "He who has not seen the jcy of the libations of Tabernacles has never in his life witnessed joy."
On the first day, called Pithoigia (opening of the casks), libations were offered from the newly opened casks to the god of wine, all the household, including servants and slaves, joining in the festivities.
Others poured libations on the tombs of deceased relatives.
100,109, and Prolegomena), regarding the Anthesteria as primarily a festival of all souls, the object of which was the expulsion of ancestral ghosts by means of placation, explains lrLOoe'yca as the feast of the opening of the graves (irieos meaning a large urn used for burial purposes), x6€s as the day of libations, and XuTpoc as the day of the grave-holes (not "pots," which is xbTpat), in point of time really anterior to the ir.Oociyia.
Animals and birds were sacrificed and libations poured to him, and prayers were addressed to him by devotees who had purified themselves by ablution and repeated flagellation.
Anyone could be a ramku who actually poured out libations; that a priest usually did it was no exception to that rule.
Such libations to the gods were made as part of the daily ritual of domestic worship, or at banquets or feasts to the Lares, or to special deities, as by the Greeks to Hermes, the god of sleep, when going to rest.
And in Greek Panegureis or festivals the sacrificial wine had to be dispensed from one common bowl: " Unto a common cup they come together, and from it pour libations as well as sacrifice," says Aristides Rhetor in his Isthmica in Neptunum, p. 45.
Under the Old Kingdom the attendance on and services for a dead magnate - the sacrifices and libations at his tomb - were left, together with endowments, to a staff of priests, called "servants of the ko(ka)," whose offices were hereditary.
At these goats were sacrificed to him with libations of wine and milk, and he was implored to be propitious to fields and flocks.
After burning for twenty-four hours the smouldering embers were extinguished with libations of wine.
Animal sacrifice, libations, ritualistic purification, sprinkling of water, and symbolical rites of all kinds accompanied by short prayers, represent a religious practice which in the Babylonian-Assyrian religion, as in all religions, is older than any theology and survives the changes which the theoretical substratum of the religion undergoes.
On his way at Puteoli, the passengers and crew of a ship just come from Alexandria cheered the old man by their spontaneous homage, declaring, as they poured libations, that to him they owed life, safe passage on the seas, freedom and fortune.
To her the opening sacrifice was offered; to her at the sacrificial meal the first and last libations were poured.
The libations of milk which the Greeks poured upon graves were possibly for these embodiments of the dead.
Sharing in the pindas (or balls of cooked rice, constituting along with libations of water the usual offering to the Manes) - such relationship being held a bar to intermarriage.
It is equally a soul or spirit in wine which inspires the intoxicated; the old Egyptian kings avoided wine at table and in libations, because it was the blood of rebels who had fought with the gods, and out of whose rotting bodies grew the vines; to drink the blood was to imbibe the soul of these rebels, and the frenzy of intoxication which followed was held to be possession by their spirits.
Thus, at Delphi there was an image of Aphrodite 6rtrupt31a (" Aphrodite of the tomb "), to which the dead were summoned to receive libations; the epithets ru,u i 3capvxos (" grave-digger "), µvxia (" goddess of the depths "), peXacv%s (" the dark one "), the grave of Ariadne-Aphrodite at Amathus, and the myth of Adonis, point in the same direction.
"was ever constant in sacrificing to the gods"; and that he now, in the presence of the commissioners of the sacrifices (01 ripolAvoCTC,P Buo v), has both sacrificed and drunk [or has poured libations], and has tasted of the victims, in witness whereof he begs them to sign this certificate.