But it excludes Manchuria, with the Liao-tung peninsula and Port Arthur, upon which Russia only placed her grasp in 1898-99, a grasp which she was compelled by Japan to release after the war of 1904-5.
On Manchurian territory, and from Kharbin sends off a branch to Dalny near Port Arthur on the Liao-tung peninsula.
By the Gulf of Liao-tung, the Yellow Sea and Korea, and W.
Physically the country is divided into two regions, the one a series of mountain ranges occupying the northern and eastern portions of the kingdom, and the other a plain which stretches southwards from Mukden, the capital, to the Gulf of Liao-tung.
A system of parallel ranges of mountains, culminating in the Chinese Chang pai Shan, " the long white mountains," on the Korean frontier, runs in a north-easterly direction from the shores of the Gulf of Liao-tung.
In its course through Eastern Manchuria it forms the watershed of the Sungari, Usuri and other rivers, and in the south that of the Ya-lu and many smaller streams. it also forms the eastern boundary of the great plain of Liao-tung.
Next in importance to these rivers are the Liao and Ya-lu, the former of which rises in Mongolia, and after running in an easterly direction for about 400 m.
Enters Manchuria in about 43° N., and turning southward empties itself into the Gulf of Liao-tung.
- Mukden, or as it is called by the Chinese Sheng-king, the capital city of Manchuria, is situated in the province of Sheng-king, occupies a fine position on the river Hun-ho, an affluent of the Liao, and is a city of considerable pretensions.
Liao-yang, which was once the capital of the country, is also in the province of Sheng-king.
The most important commercial place, however, is the treaty port of Niu-chwang, at the head of the Gulf of Liao-tung.
In 1898 Russia obtained a lease of the Liao-tung peninsula, and a clause of this contract empowered her to connect Port Arthur and Dalny (now Tairen) with the main Manchurian railway by a branch southward from Harbin.
_rq g G u/ f of Chih.li Niu-chwang, and strikes southward to Kin-chow at the extremity of the Liao-tung peninsula.
Assuming that, as the Chinese say, the Khitans were Manchus, the first appearance of the Manchus, as a people, in China dates from the beginning of the 10th century, when the Khitans, having first conquered the kingdom of Pohai, crossed the frontier into China 3 and established the Liao or Iron dynasty in the northern portion of the empire.
" Iron " (Liao), he said, " rusts, but gold always keeps its purity and colour, therefore my dynasty shall be called Kin."
This personage was a prince of the Khitai or Khitaian dynasty of Liao, which had reigned over northern China and the regions beyond the Wall during a great part of the 10th and 11th centuries, and from which came the name Khitai (Cathay), by which China was once known in Europe and still is known in Russia.
He could have gained his respite by concentrating at Harbin or even at Mukden or at Liao-Yang.
He therefore chose Liao-Yang as the point of concentration, and having thus to gain time by force instead of by distance, he pushed out a strong covering detachment towards the Yalu.
Siberian Corps, Liao-Yang.
The 2nd and 4th Armies were the left wing of a widespread converging movement on Liao-Yang.
The Eastern protective detachment, now strengthened and placed under the orders of Count Keller, was disposed with a view to countering any advance on Liao-Yang from the east by a combination of manoeuvre and fighting.
The Liao-Yang central mass was still held in hand, for the landing of the 4th Army - really only a division at present - at Takushan and the wrong placing of another Japanese division supposed to be with Kuroki (really intended for Nogi) had aroused Kuropatkin's fears for the holding capacity of Keller's detachment.
The Russians, then, at the beginning of June, were divided into three groups, the Southern, or offensive group (3 5,000), in the triangle Neuchwang-Haicheng-Kaiping; the Eastern or defensive group (30,000), the main body of it guarding the passes right and left of the Wiju-Liao-Yang road, the left (Cossacks) in the roadless hills of the upper Aiho and Yalu valleys, the right (Mishchenko's Cossacks and infantry supports) guarding Fenshuiling pass and the road from Takushan; the reserve (42,000) with Kuropatkin at Liao-Yang; the " Ussuri Army " about Vladivostok; and Stessel's two divisions in the Kwantung peninsula.
Haicheng represents Miinchengratz, Liao-Yang Gitschin, and the passes east of Liao-Yang Nachod and Trautenau.
This, and the movements of the 4th Army, which had set its face towards Haicheng and no longer seemed to be part of a threat on Liao-Yang, led to the idea being entertained at Kuropatkin's headquarters that the centre of gravity was shifting to the south.
His policy now was to retire on Liao-Yang as slowly as possible and to defend himself in a series of concentric prepared positions.
The Russian first position extended in a semicircle from Anshantien (on the Liao-Yang-Hai-cheng railway) into the hills at Anping, and thence to the Taitse river above Liao-Yang; both sides had mixed detachments farther out on the flanks.
Kuropatkin having already drawn in his line of defence on the south side towards Liao-Yang, the 2nd and 4th Japanese Armies delivered what was practically a blow in the air.
The right of the 1st Army, when about to continue the advance west on Liao-Yang, was diverted northward by Oyama's orders and ordered to prepare to cross the Taitszeho.
Reorganizing his southern defences on a shorter front, so as to regain possession of the reserves that he had so liberally given away to his subordinates, he began to collect large bodies of troops opposite Kuroki, while Stakelberg and Zarubayev, before withdrawing silently into the lines or rather the fortress of Liao-Yang, again repulsed Oku's determined attacks on the south side.
This was to the effect that Orlov was routed, Stakelberg's command much shaken, and at the same time Zarubayev in Liao-Yang, upon whom Oku and Nozu had pressed a last furious attack, reported that he had only a handful of troops still in reserve.
But the remainder of the Manchurian campaign, like the second half of the war of 1859, was nothing more than a series of violent and resuitless encounters of huge armies - armies far larger than those which had fought out the real struggle for supremacy at Liao-Yang and Magenta.
After Liao-Yang there were no extended operations, the area of conflict being confined to the plain of the coast side of the Hun-ho and the fringe of the 1 As regards food and ammunition, the resources of the defence were not by any means exhausted, and General Stessel and other senior officers of the defence were tried by courts-martial, and some of them convicted, on the charge of premature surrender.
After the battle of Liao-Yang Kuropatkin reverted for a moment to the plan of a concentration to the rear at Tieling.
The latter lay entrenched north of Liao-Yang, from a point 9 m.
[[Sheng-King, Shen-King]], Or Liao-Tung, a province of the Chinese empire, in southern Manchuria.
The most important rivers are the Liao-ho and the Yalu.
The former takes its rise in Mongolia, and after running an easterly course for about 400 m., turns S.W., and empties into the Gulf of Liao-tung, in the neighbourhood of Ying-tsze, up to which town, 20 m.
The chief cities, Mukden, Liao-yang, Niu-chwang, Port Arthur and Tairen (Dalny) are separately noticed.
The same group is probably represented in Corea and the Liao-tung by the thick "Sinisian" formation of F.