A Board of Railroad and Warehouse Commissioners, elected by the people, was established in 1875, under a provision of the constitution requiring the General Assembly to establish maximum rates and provide against discriminations.4 The homestead of a housekeeper or head of a family, together with the rents and products of the same, is exempt from levy and attachment except to satisfy its liabilities at the time he acquired it.
The Vienna Creditors' Association for the protection of claims in bankruptcies had in 1909- It fresh failures with liabilities of 45, 40 and 43 millions of kronen respectively.
To national debts there has been added a great mass of municipal and local indebtedness, which seems likely to equal, or even exceed in magnitude the liabilities of the central governments.
Liabilities on behalf of communes and public establishments, including departmental services 17,366,520
Other liabilities 6,456,200
There are also certain liabilities or debts which, for the convenience of the remedy, have been made to appear as though they sprang from contract, and are sometimes termed quasi-contracts.
Or, when one person is compelled by law to discharge the legal liabilities of another, he becomes the creditor of the person for the money so paid.
The liabilities of the fund (capitalized) amounted to 10,668,105, of which monastic pensions represented a rapidly diminishing sum of 2,564,930.
This, however, is only to be done after certain liabilities have been met out of the estate, including the services due to the lord of the land.
Rawle) (London, 1897); McAdam, Rights, Remedies and Liabilities of Landlord and Tenant (New York, 1900); Wood, Law of Landlord and Tenant (New York, 1888).
Under the budgetary heading " Public Debt " is included, as it should be, all expenditure in connexion not only with the public debt proper, but also with advances from banks and others, railway guarantees, an account of which will also be found below, and all capitalized liabilities, as far as known, contracted by the state.
This is really an accretion of undetermined liabilities which has been indefinitely, and probably alternately, advancing and receding for a great number of years, and which no previous minister of finance, or Turkish government, had the courage to face.
Now and then it has been dealt with piecemeal, when some particular class of creditors has become too pressing, but it is more than probable that the piece got rid of has been more or less rapidly replaced by fresh liabilities occasioned by budgetary deficits, or by the mere accumulation of interest on debts allowed to run on.
With the two previous loans above mentioned, £T5,50o,000 capital liabilities were paid off, the work of reorganization had made considerable progress, and £T2,000,000 remained in hand at the beginning of1910-1911to continue it.
It was intended to assign to the war department £T3,804,918, to the grand master of ordnance £T358,108, to the admiralty £T93,912, and to the ministry of finance £T2,443,202 for the payment of the war indemnities in Thessaly and other urgent liabilities, the estimated aggregate extraordinary expenditure thus amounting to £T6,700,140.
Liabilities arising out of agreements concluded after May 6 1915 are null and void if not sanctioned by the Government.
In 1865 an empty exchequer called for drastic measures, and the volksraad determined to endeavour to meet their liabilities and provide for further contingencies by the issue of notes.
Their native foes had been crushed by British forces; their liabilities were consolidated into a debt to Great Britain, to be repaid at convenience and leisure - as a matter of fact, not even interest was paid for some time.
The value of the assets of the spiritual work in the United Kingdom increased from £558,992 in 1891 to £1,357,706 in 1909, the liabilities on account of loans upon mortgage and otherwise amounting at the latter date to £662,235.
In 1908 the state debt was $816,785, and the assets in bonds, railway mortgages and bank stocks exceeded the liabilities by $7 1 7,779.
The notion of obtaining a periodical record of population and its movement, dissociated from fiscal or other liabilities, originated, as stated above, in Sweden, where, in 1686, the birth and death registers, till then kept voluntarily by the parish clergy, were made compulsory and general, the results for each year being communicated to a central office.
In view of the dissolution of the intercolonial council a convention was signed at Pretoria on the 29th of May which made provision for the division of the common property, rights and liabilities of the Orange Colony and the Transvaal in respect to the railways and constabulary, and established for four years a joint board to continue the administration of the railway systems of the two colonies.
The wife may hold, acquire and manage property the same as if she were single; she is also subject to the same liabilities in relation to her property as a single woman except that no contract or conveyance by her as surety or guarantor for her husband is binding.
After disposing of all their available assets, the state assumed the remaining liabilities, for which it had pledged its faith and credit, and these form a part.
Tithe rent charge under these acts is subject to the same liabilities and incidents as tithes, such as parliamentary, parochial, county and other rates, especially the poor rate and highway rate; but the owner of tithe rent charge attached to a benefice has been exempted by an act of 1899 from payment of half the amount of any rate which he would be liable to pay under the Agricultural Rates Act 1896, the other half being borne by the Inland Revenue Commissioners.
There are also, in addition, many other acts that impose certain liabilities in respect of animals and indirectly prevent cruelty.
Liabilities and assets.
More especially was this the case as his Norman followers were disposed to evade the liabilities of their English predecessors.
The homestead of a householder or head of a family to the value of $2000 and properly recorded is exempt from levy, seizure, garnishment or forced sale, except for purchase money, for services of a labouring person or mechanic, for liabilities incurred by a public officer, fiduciary or attorney for money collected, for taxes, for rent or for legal fees of a public officer.
Deficits can be transferred to the capital account, and the country's resources employed most usefully by repaying liabilities contracted in times of extreme need.
When the contract for the new loan was concluded, the liabilities of the Persian government for the balance of the 1892 loan (about 435,000), temporary loans from various banks, arrears of pays and salaries, and other debts, amounted to over 1,500,000, SO that not much margin was left.
The Geilfine consisting of the flaith-fine and four others in the same or nearest degree of kinship to the centre, and the Deirbhfine, Tarfine and Innfine, each consisting of four heads of families, forming widening concentric circles of kinship to which the rights and liabilities of the fine extended with certainty, but in diminishing degrees.
His status affected the force of the contract as well as the value of his evidence; and the laws appear to imply that by becoming a witness, a man incurred liabilities as a surety.
- The value of the homestead exempt from judicial sale for the satisfaction of liabilities is limited to $1500; the homestead must be owned and occupied by some member of the family claiming the exemption and may not exceed in area one block in a town or city or 160 acres outside of a municipality.
Vigorous protests by the private trading companies were also made against this violation of the freedom of trade secured by the Berlin Act, and eventually 1 For an account of the loans and liabilities of the state see II.
The powers, duties and liabilities of the quarter sessions and justices out of session with respect to the county police were vested in the quarter sessions and the county council jointly, and are now exercised through the standing joint-committee of the two bodies.
It should be added that the grant of a court of quarter sessions to any borough other than a county borough after the passing of the Local Government Act 1888, does not affect the powers, duties or liabilities of the county council as regards that borough, nor exempt the parishes in the borough from being assessed to county rate for any purposes to which such parishes were previously liable to be assessed.
It may be mentioned, however, that under the Local Government Act 1894, where a burial board district is wholly in an urban district, the urban council may resolve that the powers, duties and liabilities of the burial board shall be transferred to the council, and thereupon the burial board may cease to exist.
By the Local Government Act 1894, there were transferred to the district council of every rural district all the powers, duties and liabilities of every highway authority, surveyor or highway board within their district, and theLformer highway authorities ceased to exist.
The legislature may not create any debt or liability " which shall, single or in the aggregate with any previous debts or liabilities, at any time exceed $10o,000," except for purposes of war, to repel invasion or to suppress insurrection, without specifying distinctly the purpose or object, providing for the payment of interest, and limiting the liability to thirty-five years; and the measure as thus passed must be ratified by popular vote.
The whole burden fell on Winterthur, which struggled valiantly to meet its liabilities, and was helped by large loans from the cantonal and federal governments.
Its chief provisions, in regard to Persia, are as follows: (I) north of a line drawn from Kasr-iShirin, Isfahan, Yezd and Kakh to the junction of the Russian, Persian and Afghan frontiers Great Britain undertook to seek no political or commercial concession, and to refrain from opposing the acquisition of any such concession by Russia or Russian subjects; (2) Russia gave to Great Britain a like undertaking in respect of the territory south of a line extending from the Afghan frontier to Gazik, Birjend, Kerman and Bander Abbasi; (3) the territory between the lines above-mentioned was to be regarded as a neutral zone in which either country might obtain concessions; (4) all existing concessions in any part of Persia were to be respected; (5) should Persia fail to meet its liabilities in respect of loans contracted, before the signature of the Convention, with the Persian Banque dEscompte and de Prts, or with the Imperial Bank of Persia, Great Britain and Russia reserved the right to assume control over the Persian revenues payable within their respective spheres of influence.