Odoric set out on his travels about 1318, and his journeys embraced parts of India, the Malay Archipelago, China and even Tibet, where he was the first European to enter Lhasa, not yet a forbidden city.
In 1715 Fathers Desideri and Freyre made their way from Agra, across the Himalayas, to Lhasa, and the Capuchin Friar Orazio della Penna resided in that city from 1735 until 1747.
He left Holland in 1718, went by land through Persia to India, and eventually made his way to Lhasa, where he resided for a long time.
He went thence to China, returned to Lhasa, and was in India in time to be an eye-witness of the sack of Delhi by Nadir Shah in 1737.
Nain Singh explored the sources of the Indus and of the Upper Brahmaputra in the years 1865-1867; and in 1874-1875 he followed a line from the eastern frontiers of Kashmir to the Tengri Nor lake and thence to Lhasa, in which city he remained for some months.
Krishna's remarkable journey in 1879-1882 extended from Lhasa northwards through Tsaidam to Sachu, or Saitu, in Mongolia.
He subsequently passed through eastern Tibet to the town of Darchendo, or Tachienlu, on the high road between Lhasa and Peking, and on the borders of China.
Failing to reach India through Upper Assam he returned to the neighbourhood of Lhasa, and crossed the Himalayas by a more westerly route.
Rockhill, commenced his Tibetan journeys, and also attempted to reach Lhasa, without success.
He, too, failed to penetrate the jealouslyguarded portals of Lhasa; but he secured (with the assistance of a native surveyor) a splendid addition to our previous Tibetan mapping.
Littledale's first journey ended at Peking; his second, in 1894-1895, took him almost within sight of the sacred walls of Lhasa, but he failed to pass inside.
The mission of Sir Francis Younghusband to Lhasa in 1904 resulted in an extension of the Indian system of triangulation which finally determined the geographical position of that city, and in a most valuable reconnaissance of the valleys of the Upper Brahmaputra and Indus by Captains C. H.
Bulldog, bulldog (miniature), mastiff, Great Dane, Newfoundland (black, white and black, or other than black), St Bernard (rough and smooth), Old English sheepdog, collie (rough and smooth), Dalmatian, poodle, bull terrier, white English terrier, black and tan terrier, toy spaniel (King Charles or black and tan, Blenheim, ruby or red and tricolour), Japanese, Pekingese, Yorkshire terrier, Maltese, Italian greyhound, chowchow, black and tan terrier (miniature), Pomeranian, pug (fawn and black), Schipperke, Griffon Bruxellois, foreign dogs (bouledogues frangais, elk-hounds, Eskimos, Lhasa terriers, Samoyedes and any other varieties not mentioned under this heading).
Of its course), and the Raka Tsanpo and Kyi-chu (or river of Lhasa) below.
The great river itself is known in Tibet by many names, being generally called the Nari Chu, Maghang Tsanpo or Yaro Tsanpo, above Lhasa; the word " tsanpo " (tsang-po) meaning (according to Waddell) the " pure one," and applying to all great rivers.
The upper reaches are nowhere fordable between Tadum and Lhasa, but there is a ferry at Likche (opposite Tadum on the southern bank), where wooden boats covered with hide effect the necessary connexion between the two banks and ensure the passage of the Nepal trade.
From Shigatse, which stands near the mouth of the Nyang Chu, to the Kyi-chu, or Lhasa river, there is no direct route, the river being unnavigable below Shigatse.
Thence the valley of the Kyi-chu (itself navigable for small boats for about 30 m.) leads to Lhasa northwards.
Rather than encounter alone the horrors of a four months' journey to Lhasa they resolved to wait for eight months till the arrival of a Tibetan embassy on its return from Peking.
Crossing the deserts of Koko Nor, they passed the great lake of that name, with its island of contemplative lamas, and, following a difficult and tortuous track across snow-covered mountains, they at last entered Lhasa on the 29th of January 1846.
The Tibetans call their country Bod, which (For the northern part, see China) Scale, 1:9.500.000 0 Railways Longitude East 85 of Greenwich word in colloquial pronunciation is aspirated into Bhod or Bhot, and in the modern Lhasa dialect is curtailed into Bho.
The northern portion of Tibet is an arid and wind-swept desert; but in the southern portion the valleys of Lhasa, Shigatse, Gyantse and the Brahmaputra are covered with good soil and groves of trees, well irrigated, and richly cultivated.
The observations of Strachey, Godwin-Austen and of Griesbach and other members of the Geological Survey of India only extend to the southern edge or rim of the great plateau, where vast alluvial deposits in horizontal strata have been furrowed into deep ravines, while Russian explorers have but superficially examined the mountain regions of the north and north-east, and the British mission to Lhasa, in 1904 afforded observations merely along the trade-route to that city.
Between the Ladak frontier and Lhasa the plateau region teems with evidences of abandoned mines.
Here, at an elevation of 15,000 ft., about the great Lake Dangra, we hear of well-built villages and of richly cultivated fields of barley, indicating a condition of climate analogous to that which prevails in the districts south of Lhasa, and in contrast to the sterility of the lake region generally and the nomadic character of its population.
Our knowledge of the flora of northern and central Tibet has been considerably increased by the collections of Prjevalsky, Wellby, Bower, Thorold, Littledale and the Lhasa Mission, and that of eastern Tibet by Rockhill.
A few localities in the extreme southern portions of the country, and around Lhasa possibly, are said to produce a non-glutinous variety of rice.
Waddell gives a list of 164 species of plants collected by him at Lhasa, several being new species.
It is not a uniform speech, but comprises several dialects which have been classed by Jaeschke into three groups, namely (i) the central or the dialects of Lhasa and the central provinces of U and Tsang (including Spiti) which is the lingua franca of the whole country, (2) the western dialects of Ladak, Lahul, Baltistan and Purig, and (3) the eastern dialects of the province of Khams. In addition to these, however, are many sub-dialects of Tibetan spoken in the frontier Himalayan districts and states outside Tibet, namely, in Kunawar and Bashahr, Garhwal, Kumaon, Nepal including especially the Serpa and Murmi of eastern Nepal, Sikkim (where the dialect is called Danjong-ka), Bhutan (Lho-ka or Duk-ka.), all of which are affiliated to a central group of dialects.
The little that was known of the Tibetan language before Hodgson's time was mainly derived from the writings of the Romish friars who resided for several years in Lhasa in the first half of the 18th century.'
This scholarly linguist, equipped with modern methods of scientific research, did not confine himself to the classical period like Csoma, but extended his ' The Capuchin friars who were settled in Lhasa for a quarter of a century from 1719 studied the language; two of them, Francisco Orazio della Penna, well known from his accurate description of Tibet, and Cassian di Macerata sent home materials which were utilized by the Augustine friar Aug.
Bell (Calcutta, 1905), which has full English-Tibetan vocabularies, graduated exercises and examples in the Lhasa dialect of to-day.
In the 9th century, as shown by the bilingual Tibeto-Chinese edict at Lhasa, there was relatively little difference between the spoken and the written language.
An inhabitant of Lhasa, for example, finds the distinction between s and z', or between s and z, not in the consonant, but in the tone, pronouncing s' and s with a high note and z' and z with a low one.
In the bilingual inscriptions, Tibetan and Chinese, set up at Lhasa in 822, and published by Bushell in 1880, we remark that the silent letters were pronounced: Tib.
(2) Khams or Khamdo, which includes all eastern Tibet between the Chinese, provinces of Szechuen and Yunnan, and the district of Lhorong jong, which forms the eastern border of the Lhasa-governed territory.
In Khamdo, but subject to the direct rule of Lhasa, are several small districts, the principal are Nyarong, Tsarong, and Mar Khams or " Lower Khamdo."
For convenience of classification we may include in Khamdo a long strip of country extending along the northern border of the Lhasa territory of Lhorong jong and Larego as far as Tengri Nor, and bounded to the north by the Dang-la mountains, which is designated by Tibetans as Gyade or " the Chinese province."
This strip of country has its: own native chiefs, but is' under the control of a high Manchu officer stationed at Lhasa, known colloquially as the " superintendent of savage tribes."
It includes Lhasa and a large number of outlying districts in south-eastern Tibet, such as Po, Pemakoichen, Zayul.
(4) The fourth division of Tibet, called Tsang, includes all south-west Tibet from the Lhasa or Central province to the Indian frontier as far as Lake Manasarowar.
Tsang and Nari are under the rule of Lhasa, all the high civil and military authorities in these provinces holding their offices from it.
Though the whole of Tibet is under the suzerainty of China, the government of the country is divided into two distinct administrations, the one under the rule of the Dalai lama of Lhasa, the other under local kings or chiefs, and comprising a number of ecclesiastical fiefs.
Both are directed and controlled by the high Chinese officials residing at Lhasa, Sining Fu; and the capital of the Chinese province of Szechuen.
The part of Tibet under the rule of Lhasa, by far the largest and wealthiest, includes the central province of V, Tsang, Nari and a number of large outlying districts in southern and even in eastern Tibet.
The central government of this part of the country is at Lhasa; the nominal head is the Dalai lama or grand lama.
There is also a Tsong-du or National Assembly, divided into a greater assembly, including all government officials, and called together only to decide on matters of supreme importance, and a lesser assembly, consisting of certain high officials of Lhasa, noblemen, and delegates from the monasteries of Debung, Sera and Galdan, and fairly constantly in session.
The taxes paid to the Lhasa government are mostly in kind, sheep, ponies, meal, butter, wool, native cloth, &c., and the coin paid is said to be about 130,000 ounces of silver a year.
Chandra Das states that the crown revenues of Lhasa amount to about 2,000,000 rupees annually.
The administrative subdivisions of the Lhasa country, of which there are fifty-four, are called jong, or " prefecture," each of which is under the rule of two jong-pon, the one a lama, the other a layman.