But I have just been at Leyden and Amsterdam to ask after Galileo's cosmical system as I imagined I had heard of its being printed last year in Italy.
The availability of the energy of electrical separation in a charged Leyden jar is also limited only by the resistance of conductors, in virtue of which an amount of heat is necessarily produced, which is greater the less the time occupied in discharging the jar.
Braun suggested in 1898 that the oscillatory discharge of a Leyden jar should be sent through the primary coil of a transformer and the secondary coil should be interposed between the antenna and an earth connexion.'
Marconi 2 imparted practical utility to this idea by tuning the two circuits together, and the arrangement now employed is as follows: - A suitable condenser C, or battery of Leyden jars, has one coating connected to one spark ball and the other through a coil of one turn with the other spark ball of a discharger S.
In this case a closed condenser circuit is formed with a battery of Leyden jars, an inductance coil and a spark gap, and oscillations are excited in it by discharges created across the spark gap by an induction coil or transformer.
The main capacity in this last circuit consists of a battery of Leyden See J.
Jars or of Leyden panes immersed in oil or some form of air condenser, and the inductance coil or primary circuit of the oscillation transformer consists of a few turns of highly insulated wire wound on a frame and immersed in oil.
It had long been known that the discharges from a Leyden jar could magnetize or demagnetize steel needles.
His transmitter consists of a nearly closed oscillating circuit comprising a condenser or battery of Leyden jars, a spark gap, and the primary coil of an oscillation transformer consisting of one turn of thick wire wound on a wooden frame.
Braun showed that oscillations suitable for the purposes of electric wave creation in wireless telegraphy could be set up in a circuit consisting of a Leyden jar or jars, a spark gap and an inductive circuit, and communicated to an antenna either by inductive or direct coupling (Brit.
Full materials for his life are found in his Memoirs, written by himself (translated into English by Leyden and Erskine (London, 1826); abridged in Caldecott, Life of Baber (London, 1844).
The text of the Complaynt was first edited by Leyden in 1801.
Brunnow (Leyden, 1888).
Guidi (Leyden, 1900), and a missing fragment of the text was published by J.
The Leyden Syriac is supplemented with literal extracts from the latter, and the whole is presented as his work.
In Syriac we have a full copy in a 12th-century Leyden MS., published in J.
Archiv fiir Zoologie, ii.; Id., " The Genera of European Nemerteans critically revised," Notes from the Leyden Museum (1879); Id., " Zur Anatomie u.
C. Klinkert, Nieuw Maleisch-Nederlandisch Woorden boek (Leiden, 1893); John Leyden, Malay Annals (London, 1821); William Marsden, The History of Sumatra (London, 181 I); Malay Dictionary (London, 1824); Sir William Maxwell, A Manual of the Malay Language (London, 1888); T.
The instrument known as a Leyden jar consists of a glass bottle coated within and without for three parts of the way up with tinfoil.
Hopkinson, " On the Residual Charge of the Leyden Jar," Phil.
The Leyden Jar," ib.
167 [ii.], p. 599, containing many valuable observations on the residual charge of Leyden jars; W.
Perry, " A Preliminary Account of the Reduction of Observations on Strained Material, Leyden Jars and Voltameters," Proc. Roy.
The study of electricity he took up in 1746 when he first saw a Leyden jar, in the manipulation of which he became expert and which he improved by the use of granulated lead in the place of water for the interior armatures; he recognized that condensation is due to the dielectric and not to the metal coatings.
1892, and a tract, Versuch einer Theorie der electrischen and optischen Erscheinungen in bewegten Korpern (Leyden, 1895); also recent articles " Elektrodynamik " and " Elektronentheorie " in the Encyk.
LEIDEN or Leyden, a city in the province of South Holland, the kingdom of the Netherlands, on the Old Rhine, and a junction station 18 m.
718, of 15th cent.; (3) Leyden University, Voss.
Leyden argillite 300 ft.
Specimens of Fowler's verses were published in 1803 by John Leyden in his Scottish Descriptive Poems. Fowler contributed a prefatory sonnet to James VI.'s Furies; and James, in return, commended, in verse, Fowler's Triumphs.
For this purpose a small Leyden jar is connected as usual.
5 mm.), and usually requires a Leyden jar to be connected to the secondary terminals.
The ball A' will give up its charge of negative electricity to the Leyden jar B, and the ball B' will give up its positive charge to the Leyden jar A.
This transfer will take place because the inner coatings of the Leyden jars have greater capacity with respect to the earth than the balls.
Hence, however small may be the initial charges of the Leyden jars, by a principle of accumulation resembling that of compound interest, they can be increased as above shown to any degree.
If two Leyden jars L, L were hung upon the conductors which supported the combs, with their outer coatings put in connexion with one another by M, a series of strong spark discharges passed between the discharge balls.
In general design and construction, the manner of moving the rotating plate and in the use of the two Leyden jars in connexion with the discharge balls, Voss borrowed his ideas from Holtz.
These combs on opposite sides are connected respectively to the inner coatings of two Leyden jars whose outer coatings are in connexion with one another.
The positive stud on the back plate will act inductively on the front stud and charge it negatively, and similarly for the other stud, and as the rotation continues these charged studs will pass round and give up most of their charge through the combs to the Leyden jars.
He studied at Geneva, Leyden and Paris, before becoming (1700) professor of philosophy and mathematics at the academy of Lausanne, of which he was four times rector before 1724, when the theological disputes connected with the Consensus led him to accept a chair of philosophy and mathematics at Groningen.
In St Peter's are the famous altar-piece by Rubens, representing the Crucifixion of St Peter, several works by Lucas van Leyden, and some old German glass-paintings.
The majority of the krypton lines which Baly identifies with auroral lines require for their production a Leyden jar and spark gap.
Several of his finest portrait-drawings in chalk or charcoal, including those of his brother artists Lucas Van Leyden and Bernard Van Orley, as well as one of two fine portrait paintings of men, belong to the period of this journey.
In the library of the university of Leyden, amongst the MSS.
LEYDEN JAR, or Condenser, an electrical appliance consisting in one form of a thin glass jar partly coated inside and outside with tin foil, or in another of a number of glass plates similarly coated.
The earliest form of Leyden jar consisted of a glass vial or thin Florence flask, partly full of water, having a metallic nail inserted through the cork which touched the water.
Von Kleist of Kammin in Pomerania in 1745,' and it was repeated in another form in 1746 by Cunaeus and P. van Musschenbroek, of the university of Leyden (Leiden), whence the term Leyden jar.
Franklin in 1747 and 1748 made numerous investigations on the Leyden jar, and devised a method of charging jars in series as well as in parallel.
This arrangement is commonly called a battery of Leyden jars.
In its modern form the Leyden jar consists of a widemouthed bottle of thin English flint glass of uniform thickness p. 512.
In other cases, Leyden jars or condensers take the form of sheets of mica or micanite or ebonite partly coated with tin foil or silver leaf on both sides; or a pile of sheets of alternate tin foil and mica may be built up, the tin foil sheets having lugs projecting out first on one side and then on the other.
All the lugs on one side are connected together, and so also are all the lugs on the other side, and the two sets of tin foils separated by sheets of mica constitute the two metallic surfaces of the Leyden jar condenser.
For the purposes of wireless telegraphy, when large condensers are required, the ordinary Leyden jar occupies too much space in comparison with its electrical capacity, and hence the best form of con denser consists of a number of sheets of crown glass, each partly coated on both sides with tin foil.
Fessenden in wireless telegraphy, and they form a very excellent arrangement for standard condensers with which to compare the capacity of other Leyden jars.
Owing to the variation in the value of the dielectric constant of glass with the temperature and with the frequency of the applied electromotive force, and also owing to electric glow discharge from the edges of the tin foil coatings, the capacity of an ordinary Leyden jar is not an absolutely fixed quantity, but its numerical value varies somewhat with the method by which it is measured, and with the other circumstances above mentioned.
The Van Eycks, followed by Memling, Metsys, Mabuse, Lucas van Leyden, struck out a new path in the revival of painting and taught Europe the secret of oil-colouring.
The principles of telegraphy (land, submarine and wireless) and of telephony are discussed in the articles Telegraph and Telephone, and various electrical instruments are treated in separate articles such as Amperemeter; Electrometer; Galvanometer; Voltmeter; Wheatstone'S Bridge; Potentiometer; Meter, Electric; Electrophorus; Leyden Jar; &C.