In 1905 Portland was the first manufacturing city of the state, with a factory product valued at $9,132,801 (as against $8,527,649 for Lewiston, which outranked Portland in 1900); here are foundries and machine-shops, planing-mills, car and railway repair shops, packing and canning establishments - probably the first Indian corn canned in the United States was canned near Portland in 1840 - potteries, and factories for making boots, shoes, clothing, matches, screens, sleighs, carriages, cosmetics, &c. Shipbuilding and fishing are important industries.
AUBURN, a city and the county-seat of Androscoggin county, Maine, U.S.A., on the Androscoggin river, opposite Lewiston (with which it practically forms an industrial unit), in the S.W.
Of these the most notable is the Niagara escarpment which extends eastward from Canada, past Lewiston and Lockport, - a downward step from the Erie to the Ontario plain, where the Niagara limestone outcrops, and its resistance to denudation accounts for the steeply rising face at the boundary between the two plains.
Lewiston limestone 5501050 ft.
(at Lewiston, Nez Perce county) to 12,078 ft.
Border at Lewiston is the lowest elevation in the state, 738 ft.
As the boundary between Idaho and Oregon (and for a short distance between Idaho and Washington); turns again at Lewiston (where it ceases to be the boundary, and where the Clearwater empties into it) to the W.
The mildest region of the state is the Snake river basin between Twin Falls and Lewiston, and the valley of the Boise, Payette and Weiser rivers; here the mean annual temperature in 1902 was 52° F., the maximum was 106° F., and the minimum was - 13° F.
The fertile northern plateaus, the Camas and Nez Perce prairies and the Palouse country - a wonderful region for growing the durum or macaroni wheat - until 1898 had no market nearer than Lewiston, 50-70 m.
Viticulture is of importance, particularly in the Lewiston valley.
Of Lewiston, in Nez Perce county.
There were thirtythree incorporated cities, towns and villages, but only five had a population exceeding 2000; these were Boise (5957), Pocatello (4046), Lewiston (2425), Moscow (2484) and Wallace (2265).
There are two state normal schools, one at Lewiston and the other at Albion.
Portland, Lewiston, Biddeford, and Auburn are the leading manufacturing cities, and in 1905 the total value of their manufactures was 21.5% of those of the entire state.
Lewiston leads in the manufacture of cotton goods; Auburn, Bangor and Augusta, in the manufacture of boots and shoes; Bath, in ship and boat building; Eastport and Lubec, in canning " sardines."
The principal cities of the state are: Portland, pop. (1900), 50,145; Lewiston, 23,761; Bangor, 21,850; Biddeford, 16,145; Auburn, 12,951; Augusta, 11,683; Bath, 10,477; Waterville, 9,477; and Rockland, 8,150.
From the Hudson's Bay Company's Fort Walla Walla; and Spalding at Lapwai, near the present Lewiston, Idaho.