Further, it is subsequently found that certain classes of temple servants, the singers and porters, who had once been outside the Levitical gilds, became absorbed as the term "Levite" was widened, and this change is formally expressed by the genealogies which ascribe to Levi, the common "ancestor" of them all, the singers and even certain families whose heathenish and foreign names show that they were once merely servants of the temple.3 2.
- Although the legal basis for the final stage is found in the legislation of the time of Moses (latter part of the second millennium B.C.), it is in reality scarcely earlier than the 5th century B.C., and the Jewish theory finds analogies when developments of the Levitical service are referred to David (I Chron.
Xxix.) and Josiah (xxxv.) - contrast the history in the earlier books of Samuel and Kings - or when the still later book of Jubilees (xxxii.) places the rise of the Levitical priesthood in the patriarchal period.
Sqq., see § 3) or from the Levitical cities (Num.
5 reads "the Levite priests," the phrase characteristic of the Deuteronomic identification of priestly and Levitical ministry.
However intelligible may be the notion of a tribe reserved for priestly service, the fact that it does not apply to early biblical history is apparent from the heterogeneous details of the Levitical divisions.
Certain priesthoods in the first stage (§ 1 [a]) claimed descent from these prototypes, and it is interesting to observe (1) the growing importance of Aaron in the later sources of "the Exodus," and (2) the relation between Mosheh (Moses) and his two sons Gershom and Eliezer, on the one side, and the Levitical names Mushi (i.e.
There are links, also, which unite Moses with Kenite, Rechabite, Calebite and Edomite families, and the Levitical names themselves are equally connected with the southern tribes - of Judah and Simeon and with the Edomites.4 It is to be inferred, therefore, that some relationship subsisted, or was thought to subsist, among (i) the Levites, (2) clans actually located in the south of Palestine, and (3) families whose names and traditions point to a southern origin.
That these places (in the district of Kadesh) were traditionally associated with the origin of the Levites is suggested by various Levitical stories, although it is in a narrative now in a context pointing to Horeb or Sinai that the Levites are Israelites who for some cause (now lost) severed themselves from their people and took up a stand on behalf of Yahweh (Exod.
28-31), and does not acknowledge the northern priesthood to be Levitical (I Kings xii.
- From the inevitable conclusion that there are three stages in the written sources for the Levitical institutions, the next step is the correlation of allied traditions on the basis of the genealogical evidence.
Sheep, rams, bullocks, fowls are given sacrificial salt to lick, and then sacrificed by the priest and deacon, who has the levitical portions of the victim as his perquisite.
The " priestly " traditions of the creation and of the patriarchs mark a very distinct advance upon the earlier narratives, and appear in a further developed form in the still later book of Jubilees, or " Little Genesis," where they are used to demonstrate the pre-Mosaic antiquity of the priestly or Levitical institutions.
And although the Levitical organization, as ascribed to David, is manifestly post-exilic, it is at least certain that many of the Levitical families were of southern origin.
The first hint of the employment of the dog in the pursuit of other animals is given by Oppian in his Cynegetica, who attributes it to Pollux about zoo years after the promulgation of the Levitical law.
It rests on the old theory of the antiquity of the Levitical legislation, so that in fact all who place that legislation later than Ezekiel are agreed that the book of Joel is also late.
But when we look at the Elohim psalms more nearly, we see that they contain two distinct elements, Davidic psalms and psalms ascribed to the Levitical choirs (sons of Korah, Asaph).
The Davidic collection as we have it splits the Levitical psalms into two groups and actually divides the Asaphic Ps.
But if we remove them we get a continuous body of Levitical Elohim psalms, or rather two collections, the first Korahitic and the second Asaphic, to which there have been added by way of appendix by a non-Elohistic editor a supplementary group of Korahite psalms and one psalm (certainly late) ascribed to David.
- lxxii.) with doxology and subscription; (c) a twofold Levitical collection (xlii.- xlix.; 1., lxxiii.
Other evidence of date is to be found in the Levitical psalms of the Elohistic collection.
One of the three chief singers belonging to the three great Levitical houses.
It is indeed possible that each division of the Levitical singers had its own collection;.
But there is no difficulty in supposing that each division of the Levitical musicians had its own traditional music, certain instruments being peculiar to the one and certain to the other, in which case the assignment of a psalm to the Asaphites or Korahites will merely denote the sort of music to which it is set.
And III., for the composition of a poem and its acceptance as part of the Levitical liturgy are not necessarily coincident in date, except in psalms written with a direct liturgical purpose.
We need not suppose that the Chronicler quotes from the Psalter or vice versa, the matter which they have in common being probably derived from certain traditional songs current among the Levitical singers.
Of all priestly costumes 5 the most interesting is undoubtedly that of the Jewish Levitical high-priest.
The Levitical code exacted of the offender reparation for the damage with the addition of one-fifth of the amount, and an expiatory sacrifice (Lev.
According to the late post-exilic genealogies he was of Levitical origin (1 Chron.
2 7-43), the arrangements for the Levitical organization (vv.
Now the writer of Chronicles betrays on every page his essentially Levitical habit.
It even seems possible from a close attention to descriptions of sacred ordinances to conclude that his special: interests are those of a common Levite rather than of a priest,, and that of all Levitical functions he is most partial to those of the singers, a member of whose guild he may have been.
Large sections of the old history are devoted to the religion and politics of the ten tribes, which are altogether unintelligible and uninteresting when measured by a strictly Levitical standard; and in general the whole problems and struggles of the prophetic period turn on points which had ceased to be cardinal in the life of the New Jerusalem, which was no longer called to decide between the claims of the Word of Yahweh and the exigencies of political.
Affairs and social customs, and which could not comprehend that men absorbed in deeper spiritual contests had no leisure for the niceties of Levitical legislation.
Xii.), partly of full details on points connected with the history of the sanctuary and the great feasts or the archaeology of the Levitical ministry (i Chron.
Throughout it is assumed that the Levitical organization had been in existence from the days of David, to whom its foundation is ascribed.
Along with the exceptional interest taken in Levitical and priestly lists should be noticed the characteristic preference for genealogies.
But the Levitical system as it appears in its most complete form in ' But that this was not the invention of the chronicler appears possible from Jer.
Moreover, with the emphasis which is laid upon the Jerusalem Temple is to be associated the new superiority of Zadok, the traditional ancestor of the Zadokites, the Jerusalem priests, whose supremacy over the other Levitical families only enters into the history of a much later age (see Levites).
In point of fact some form of revelation or oracle appears to have existed in every great shrine of Canaan and Syria,' and the importance of this element in the cultus may be measured from the fact that at Hierapolis it was the charge of the chief priest, just as in the Levitical legislation.
Protestants, in rejecting the sacrifice of the mass, deny also that there is a Christian priesthood " like the Levitical," and have either dropped the name of " priest" or use it in a quite emasculated sense.
The author of the Ocbar) even compares them to the High Priests of the Old Testament, and considers them entitled to the firstfruits of the Levitical law.
The "foods" in question probably refer neither to temple sacrifices nor to the Levitical laws of clean and unclean foods, nor yet to ascetic scruples (as in Rom.
How far the older sacrificial rules resembled the levitical law we do not know, but in the canons of Sahak, C. 43 0, the priests already receive the levitical portions of the victims; and we find that animals are being sacrificed every Sunday, on the feast days which at first were few, in fulfilment of private vows, in expiation of the sins of the living, and still more of those of the dead.
Escape the Levitical priesthood (Latin Prologue), or it was a natural defect (Cod.
The last change in the system was the appropriation of the Levitical tithe by the priests, which apparently was effected by John Hyrcanus, though a tradition, glaringly inconsistent with Nehemiah, ascribes it to Ezra, alleging that he deprived the Levites because so few of them were willing to return to Palestine (Mishnah, "Ma'aser Sh."
The close relation between Aaronite and Levitical names and those of clans related to Moses is very noteworthy, and it is a curious coincidence that the name of Aaron's sister Miriam appears in a genealogy of Caleb (1 Chron.
That such dietary restrictions were merely ceremonial and superstitious, and not intended to prevent the consumption of meats which would revolt modern tastes, is certain from the fact that the Levitical law freely allowed the eating of locusts, grasshoppers, crickets and cockroaches, while forbidding the consumption of rabbits, hares, storks, swine, &c. The Pythagoreans were forbidden to eat beans.
This was logically followed by a revival of the old Levitical rule which required that priests should marry none but virgins (Lev.
This is perhaps the same as the Bezer mentioned in Deuteronomy and Joshua as a levitical city and a city of refuge.