The war with France at the beginning of this reign, with its attendant evils, quartering of troops, conscription and levies of money, joined with cattle disease and scanty harvests in plunging the land again into distress, from which it recovered very slowly.
The storm is swallowing up the levies, and we sent folks north.
Alva then advanced to meet the invaders with a large army, and at Jemmingen (July 21), with very slight loss, annihilated the levies of Louis, who himself escaped by swimming from the field across an estuary of the Ems. He now joined the army of his brother William, which had in October to beat a hasty retreat before Alva's superior skill.
The Italian troops, mostly native levies, numbered only 2200 men.
The 17th of July 1894, and garrisoned the place with native levies under Italian officers.
By this time the rising had attained the dimensions of a revolution; all the feudal levies of the kingdom were called out against it; and mercenaries were hired in haste from Venice, Bohemia and the emperor.
The Turkish government also levies taxes on the inhabitants of the river valley, and for this purpose, and to maintain a caravan route from the Mediterranean coast to Bagdad, maintains stations of a few zaptiehs or gens d'armes, at intervals of about 8 hours (caravan time), occupying in general the stations of the old Persian post road.
29 cities of former days, there is a succession of small towns along the course of the river - Ramadiya, Feluja, Mussaib, Hillah, Diwanieh, Samawa, el-Khudr (an ancient daphne or sacred grove, 3 I° 11' 58" N., 76° 6' 9" E., the only one anywhere which preserves to this day its ancient charter of the inviolability of all life within its precincts), Nasrieh and Suk-esh-Sheiukh----by means of which the Turkish government controls the river and levies taxes on a small part of the adjacent territory.
The schools are supported by a poll-tax, by general appropriations, by local levies, and by the Chickasaw school fund.
The officer points out the folly of such a course, and the certainty that the republic, whose troops had triumphed over those of Prussia and Austria, will speedily disperse the untrained levies of Provence.
The men of Cadiz compelled the French warships to surrender, and the levies of Andalusia, closing around Dupont, compelled him and some 23,000 men to lay down their arms at Baylen (23rd of July).
The school revenues are derived from the sale and rental of public lands granted by Congress, and of the salt and swamp lands devoted by the state to such purposes, from a uniform levy of one mill on each dollar of taxable property in the state, from local levies (averaging 7.2 mills in township districts and 10.07 mills in separate districts in 1908), from certain fines and licences, and from tuition fees paid by non-resident pupils.
To all these various forces must be added the knights and native levies of the great orders, whose masters were practically independent sovereigns like the princes of Antioch and Tripoli; 3 and with these the total levy of the kingdom may be reckoned at some 25,000 men.
Under their peaceful rule their territories flourished, until the weakening of the Mogul empire and the rise of the predatory Bundela and Mahratta powers, with the organized forces of which their semi-barbarous feudal levies were unable to cope, brought misfortune upon them.
As the soldiers of Alexander died off, fresh levies of home-born Macedonians could be raised only by the chief who held the motherland.
As these phalangites are distinguished both from the Greek mercenaries and the native Egyptian levies, it looks (although such a fact would be staggering) as if more Macedonians could be raised for military service in Egypt than in Macedonia itself (but see Beloch, p. 353).
In December 1901 the mullah was, however, once more raiding in the neighbourhood of Burao, and in May Wars with 1902 Colonel Swayne led another expedition against the Mullah him, the Somali levies being strengthened by the 2nd Mahomme dKing's African Rifles, consisting of Yaos from Nyasa- Abdullah.
Prodigies of valour on the part of Bayezid's troops could not make up for the defection of the newly-absorbed levies from Aidin, Sarukhan and Menteshe who went over to their former princes in Timur's camp. The rout of the Turkish army was complete.
The military class was divided into two categories: (I) the regular paid troops who were quartered in barracks and were known as " slaves of the palace "; (2) the feudal levies who received no pay and were called upon to serve only in war-time.
In June 1593, with an army of 30,000 men, he laid siege to Sissek; the Austrian and Hungarian levies hurried to its relief; and on the 22nd the Turks were routed with immense slaughter on the banks of the Kulpa, Hassan himself, with many other beys and two of the imperial princes, being among the slain.
In exchange for the subsistence of the French troops of occupation, a corresponding number of these new levies were moved to the south of France, where they commenced to arrive at.
Levies were also made with rigorous severity in the states of the Rhine Confederation, and even Italy was called on for fresh sacrifices.
The crown prince of Sweden (Bernadotte), with his Swedes and various Prussian levies, 135,000 in all, lay in and around Berlin and Stettin; and knowing his former marshal well, Napoleon considered Oudinot a match for him.
Spanish levies, numbering nearly ioo,000 regulars and militia, brave and enthusiastic, but without organization, sufficient training, or a commander-in-chief, had collected together; 30,000 being in Andalusia, a similar number in Galicia, and others in Valencia and Estremadura, but few in the central portion of Spain.
Much progress had been made in the organization and training of the Portuguese levies; Major-General William Carr Beresford, with the rank of marshal, was placed at their head.
At Tippermuir and Aberdeen he routed Covenanting levies; at Inverlochy he crushed the Campbells, at Auldearn, Alford and Kilsyth his victories were obtained over well-led and disciplined armies.
The old feudal levies he put aside.
These armaments, which cost Matthias 1,000,000 florins per annum, equivalent to 200,00O, did not include the auxiliary troops of the hospodars of Walachia and Moldavia, or the feudal levies of the barons and prelates.
The financial authority estimates what additional amount beyond revenue is required for the expenses of administration, and levies a rate to meet it.
The bulk of the Dutch levies were organized on the burgher system - that is, each district was furnished with a commandant, who had under him field-cornets and assistant field-cornets, who administered the fighting capacity of the district.
Plumer's Rhodesian levies from the north, on the 17th of May relieved Mafeking, where Colonel (Lieut.-General Sir) R.
BATTLE OF THE STANDARD, a name given to the battle of the 22nd of August 1138 near Northallerton, in which the Scottish army under King David was defeated by the English levies of Yorkshire and the north Midlands, who arrayed themselves round a chariot carrying the consecrated banners of St Peter of York, St John of Beverley, St Wilfrid of Ripon and St Cuthbert of Durham.
This force, together with some ill-armed Irish levies commanded by Sir Thomas Fitzgerald, landed in Lancashire on the 4th of June.
Peterwardein, the "Gibraltar of Hungary," is believed to represent the Roman Acumincum, and received its present name from Peter the Hermit, who here in 1096 marshalled the levies of the first crusade.
The country districts of the Florentine dominion were now divided into departments, and levies of foot soldiers were made in order to secure a standing militia.
Machiavelli had to attend the camp and provide for levies amid his many other occupations.
Each county has its own administrative boards and officers; and there are two justices of the peace and two constables for every township. The board of supervisors, consisting of not more than seven members, elected for a term of three years, has the care of county property and the management of county business, including highways and bridges; it fixes the rate of county taxes within prescribed limits, and levies the taxes for state and county purposes.
The Germans raised levies of Masai and Sudanese, and brought natives from New Guinea to help in suppressing the rising, besides sending naval and military contingents from Germany.
The board of county commissioners fixes the rate of county taxes and levies those taxes; and the county treasurer collects the taxes of the state and those of the county.
But the excessive caution of Jagiello gave the Knights time to recover from the blow; the Polish levies proved unruly and incompetent; Witowt was suddenly recalled to Lithuania by a Tatar invasion, and thus it came about that, when peace was concluded at Thorn, on the 1st of February 1411, Samogitia (which was to revert to the Order on the death of Jagiello and Witowt), Dobrzyn, and a war indemnity of 10o,000 marks payable in four instalments, were the best terms Poland could obtain from the Knights, whose territory practically remained intact.
- No undisciplined levies could have fought as did the armies on both sides.
In 1788 when the Danes unexpectedly invaded Sweden and threatened Gothenburg, it was Armfelt who under the king's directions organized the Dalecarlian levies and led them to victory.
Weighing the dangers of delay, of retreat, and of an attack with his single division of 4500 men, supported only by 5000 native levies of doubtful quality, Wellesley convinced himself that an immediate attack, though against greatly superior forces (30,000 horse, io,000 European-drilled infantry and loo well-served guns) in a strong position, was the wisest course.
The most notable event in the history of the town was its siege by Fairfax in 1648, when the raw levies of the Royalists in the second civil war held his army at bay for nearly eleven weeks, only surrendering when starved out, and when Cromwell's victory in the north made further resistance useless.
The Asturians chose him as their king in 718, and although Galicia was lost in 734, the Moors proved unable to penetrate into the remoter fastnesses held by the levies of Pelayo.
Christian had to depend mainly upon hired troops, supported by native levies recruited for the most part from the peasantry on the crown domains.
Were raised by compulsory levies even after the system of raising troops by free contract had begun.
The States-General wished to summon a national synod, the States of Holland refused their assent, and made levies of local militia(waard-gelders) for the maintenance of order.
He determined, however, to march to Kumasi, whilst Captain (afterwards Sir) John Glover, R.N., administrator of Lagos, was with a force of native levies to co-operate from the east and take the Ashanti in rear.
Meanwhile the enemy broke up camp, and, although harassed by native levies raised by the British, effected an orderly retreat.
His reign was marked by two serious attacks on the part of the Danes, who destroyed Winchester in 860, in spite of the resistance of the ealdormen Osric and Ã†thelwulf with the levies of Hampshire and Berkshire, while in 865 they treacherously ravaged Kent.
The kings of the East leant more than ever upon Greek mercenaries, whose superiority to barbarian levies was sensibly brought home to them by the expedition of Cyrus.
It was inevitable, however, that discrepancies should emerge between the texts of professed scholars, and as these men in their several localities were authorities on the reading of the Koran, quarrels began to break out between the levies from different districts about the true form that these initials did not belong to Mahomet's text, but might be the monograms of possessors of codices, which, through negligence on the part of the editors, were incorporated in the final form of the Koran; he now deems it more probable that they are to be traced to the Prophet himself, as Sprenger, Loth and others suppose.
The army, commanded in chief by Una under the VIth Dynasty for raids in Sinai or Palestine, comprised levies from every part of Egypt and from Nubia, each under its own leader.
The wooden club, a somewhat primitive weapon, seems to have been considered characteristic of foreigners from very early times, and, in scenes dating from the Middle Kingdom, belong principally to the levies from the surrounding barbarians.
Not only were the magnates sharply reminded that they held their lands on military tenure, but the towns were also made to contribute both men and ships, and peasant levies, especially archers, were recruited from every parish.
We ourselves will not delay to appear among our people in that Capital and in other parts of our realm for consultation, and for the direction of all our levies, both those now barring the enemy's path and those freshly formed to defeat him wherever he may appear.