Karstens (1894) breaks it up into parts as follows: Western Mediterranean 841,593 Sicilian-Ionian basin 767,658 Greece and Levant basin 769,652 Adriatic Sea 130,656 Total..
The Sicilian-Ionian basin has a mean depth of 885 fathoms, and the Levant basin, 793 fathoms. Deep water is found close up to the coast of Sicily, Greece, Crete and the edge of the African plateau.
Another bank i ioo fathoms from the surface runs south from the east end of Crete, separating the Pola Deep from the depths of the Levant basin, in which a depth of 1960 fathoms was recorded near Makri on the coast of Asia Minor.
A similar distribution is found loo fathoms from the surface, temperature falling from 60° in the Levant to 55° east of Gibraltar.
From 1639 to 1768 there was an agency of the Levant Company here; there is now a British consul.
He was destined by his family for the church, but entered business, and became a partner in a firm at Lyons for which he travelled in the Levant, in Italy, Spain and Portugal.
At first, joining to Cimon's antiPersian ambitions and Themistocles' schemes of Western expansion a new policy of aggression on the mainland, he endeavoured to push forward Athenian power in every direction, and engaged himself alike in Greece Proper, in the Levant and in Sicily.
Under Pericles Athens also attained her greatest measure of commercial prosperity, and the activity of her traders all over the Levant, the Black Sea and the West, is attested not only by literary authority, but also by numerous Attic coins, vases, &c.
If he mastered the whole coast-line of the Levant, the enemy's fleet would find itself left in the air.
Commerce was the source of Aegina's greatness, and her trade, which appears to have been principally with the Levant, must have suffered seriously from the war with Persia.
One of the last Venetian strongholds in the Levant, it was ceded by the treaty of Passarowitz (1718) to the Turks.
But the piratical acts of these traders, in which the knights themselves sometimes joined, and the strategic position of the island between Constantinople and the Levant, necessitated its reduction by the Ottoman sultans.
Aegilops, a fine species indigenous to Greece and the coasts of the Levant, and sometimes called the "Oak of Bashan."
The Venetian ascendancy in the Levant dates from this epoch; for, though the republic had no power to occupy all the domains ceded to it, Candia was taken, together with several small islands and stations on the mainland.
The loss of trade consequent upon the closing of Egypt and the Levant, together with the discovery of America and ~e~ilne the sea-route to the Indies, had dried up her thief of Vonl~e source of wealth.
If fugitives are for the next half-century to be met with in all parts of Europe, yet, especially in the Levant, there grew up thriving Jewish communities often founded by Spanish refugees.
His miracles were reported and eagerly believed everywhere; " from Poland, Hamburg and Amsterdam treasures poured into his court; in the Levant young men and maidens prophesied before him; the Persian Jews refused to till the fields.
Salep, still used in the Levant, consists of the dried tubers of a terrestrial orchid, and contains a relatively large amount of nutritious matter.
Gulf, the Tigris, and thence westward to the north-east angle of the Levant; on the north the high land follows nearly 36° N.
The European forms seem to extend to about 30° N., south of which the Indo-Malayan types are met with, Japan being of the Europeo-Asiatic group. The northern forms extend generally along the south coast of the Mediterranean up to the border of the great desert, and from the Levant to the Caspian.
Somewhat later the Crusades kept up communication with the Levant, and established there the power of the Roman Church, somewhat to the detriment of oriental Christianity, but intercourse with farther Asia was limited to the voyages of a few travellers.
5 Voyage au Levant (Paris, 1664).
Collections formed by a certain nobleman who had travelled in Eastern Europe, Western Asia and Egypt - possible Breidenbach, an account of whose travels in the Levant was printed at Mentz in 1486 - it is really a medical treatise, and its zoological portion is mainly an abbreviation of the writings of Albertus Magnus, with a few interpolations from Isidorus of Seville (who flourished in the beginning of the 7th century, and was the author of many works highly esteemed in the middle ages) and a work known as Physiologus.
9 The results of Forsk5.l's travels in the Levant, published after his death by Niebuhr, require mention, but the ornithology they contain is but scant.
For other countries in the Levant there are Canon Tristram's Fauna and Flora of Palestine (4to, 1884) and Captain Shelley's Handbook to the Birds of Egypt (8vo, 1872).
But it is in the domestic architecture of Venice that we find the most striking and characteristic examples of Gothic. The introduction of that style coincided with the consolidation of the Venetian constitution and the Gothic development of Venetian commerce both in the Levant and with England and Flanders.
Wheat, coal, cotton, petroleum, wood, lime and cement are brought into Venice for shipment to the Levant or for distribution over Italy and Europe.
The result of the first three Crusades was that Venice acquired trading rights, a Venetian quarter, church, market, bakery, &c., in many of the Levant cities, e.g.
The fall of Tyre marks a great advance in development of Venetian trade; the republic had now passed beyond the Adriatic, and had taken an important step towards that complete command of the Levant which she established after the Fourth Crusade.
The growth of Venetian trade and wealth in the Levant roused the jealousy of Genoa and the hostility of the imperial court at Constantinople, where the Venetians are said to have numbered 200,000 and to have held a large quarter of the city in terror by their brawls.
The closing of the great council was, no doubt, mainly due to the slowly formed resolution on the part of the great commercial families to secure a monopoly in the Levant trade which the Fourth Crusade had placed definitely in their hands.
The theory of the government, a theory expressed throughout the whole commercial career of the republic, the theory which made Venice a rigidly protective state, was that the Levant trade belonged solely to Venice and her citizens.
These events are chiefly concerned with the long struggle with Genoa over the possession of the Levant and Black Sea trade.
But it was impossible that the rival Venetian and Genoese merchants, dwelling at close quarters in the Levant cities, should not come to blows.
Genoa never recovered from the blow, and Venice remained undisputed mistress of the Mediterranean and the Levant trade.
Contemporaneously other events were menacing the ascendancy and exhausting the treasury of the republic. In 1453 Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks, and although Venice entered at once into treaty with the new power and desired to trade with it, not to fight with it, yet it was impossible that her possessions in the Levant and the archipelago should not eventually bring her into collision with the expanding energy of the Mussulman.
The acquisition of Cyprus marks the extreme limit of Venetian expansion in the Levant; from this date onward there is little to record save the gradual loss of her maritime possessions.
Spon brought back many valuable treasures, coins, inscriptions and manuscripts, and in later years published various important works on archaeology, notably his Voyage d'Italie, de Dalmatie, de Grece et du Levant (1678), and a Histoire de la republique de Geneve (1680).
Levant cotton is derived from this species.
Henry thus gained a basis in the Levant; while the death of Saladin in 1193, followed by a civil war between his brother, Malik-alAdil, and his sons for the possession of his dominions, weakened the position of the Mahommedans.
There was first of all the old crusading grudge against the Eastern empire, and its fatal policy of regarding the whole of the Levant as its lost provinces, to be restored as soon as conquered, or at any rate held in fee, by the Western crusaders - a policy which led the Eastern emperors either to give niggardly aid or to pursue obstructive tactics, and caused them to be blamed for the failure of the Crusades in riot, and 1149, and in 1190.
Before this great gathering of all Christian Europe he proclaimed a Crusade for the year 1217, and in common deliberation it was resolved that a truce of God should reign for the next four years, while for the same time all trade with the Levant should cease.
But an entirely new and far more important factor in the affairs of the Levant was the extension of the empire of the Mongols during the 13th century.
In part, again, a commercial war raged between Venice and Genoa, which attracted into its orbit all the various feuds and animosities of the Levant (12J7).
Other writers, again, blame the com mercial cupidity of the Italian towns; of what avail, they asked with no little justice, was the Crusade, when Venice and Genoa destroyed the naval bases necessary for its success by their internecine quarrels in the Levant (as in 1257), or - still worse - entered into commercial treaties with the common enemy against whom the Crusades were directed?
It was France which had colonized the Levant; it was the French tongue which was used in the Levant; and the results of the ancient and continuous connexion with the East are still to be traced to-day.
The genealogy of the Levant is given in Le Livre des lignages d'outre-mer (published along with the assizes).
Akhma, over the northern end of which runs a single easy pass (Beilan) to the north-east angle of the Levant coast (Alexandretta), while at the southern end is a gap through which the Orontes turns sharply to the sea.
The visit of the French physician Jacques Spon and the Englishman, Sir George Wheler or Wheeler (1650-1723), fortunately took place before the catastrophe of the Parthenon in 1687; Spon's Voyage d'Italie, de Dalmatie, de Grece et du Levant, which contained the first scientific description of the ruins of Athens, appeared in 1678; Wheler's Journey into Greece, in 1682.
For the Byzantine and medieval periods, William Miller, Latins in the Levant (London, 1908); F.