Of Livonia; the Livs, on the Gulf of Riga; and the Kurs, intermingled with the Letts; (b) the N.
The Lithuanians prevail in Kovno, Vilna and Suwalki; and the Letts, who are, however, more scattered, are chiefly concentrated in Vitebsk, Courland and Livonia.
The relations of the Esths and Letts with their landlords are anything but friendly.
The most striking difference between Zoroaster's doctrine of God and the old religion of India lies in this, that while in the Avesta the evil spirits are called daeva (Modern Persian div), the Aryans of India, in common with the Italians, Celts and Letts, gave the name of deva to their good spirits, the spirits of light.
Its territory comprises chiefly districts of the Baltic provinces of the Russian Empire, which linguistically or ethnographically belonged to the Letts, whence the name of Latvia as a new nation-state.
Population.-According to the census of June 15 1920 the population of Latvia was less numerous and homogeneous than was anticipated in 1918, amounting in all to 1,515,815 inhabitants, of whom 1,146,554 were Letts and 355,518 belonged to other nationalities (Livonia, 477,839 Letts and 104,091 non-Letts; Courland, 404,- 159 Letts and 71,524 non-Letts; Latgalia, 264,556 Letts and 179,103 non-Letts), the non-Letts thus forming about 25% of the total population.
The losses of the Letts were due to: (a) the evacuation of the factories by the Russian Government; (b) the partly forced removal of the population of Courland before the German advance; (c) the wars.
The percentage of literacy according to nationalities was: Germano-Balts 85, Esthonians 82, Poles 78, Letts 74, Jews 72, unknown 60, Lithuanians 55, Great Russians 36, others 33, White Russians 32.
Students on March I 1921 numbered 2,111 men and 1,145 women, 2,328 students being Letts, 803 minority nationalities, 125 foreigners.
Religion.-Seventy-five per cent at least of the Letts are Protestants, but there is a Catholic majority in Latgalia and a number of Greek Orthodox among the Letts.
Ulmanis, with numerous Letts abroad and in Russia.
27 1917) this action was continued as opposed to the policy of the leading Baits (Sievers, Oettingen, Baron Pilar, Stryck), who were alarmed by the Bolshevik upheaval, the congress of the landless workers at Wolmar (Dec. 16-19 1917), the outrages of the Russian soldiery, the impotence of the more moderate Letts, the universal anti-German feeling, the danger to life and property, and obtained the occupation of the whole region up to Narva by German troops, thus aiding and abetting the Germans in their plans of domination.
And Ulmanis, under the pressure of a Bolshevik invasion and Bolshevik influence among the Letts, did not succeed in forming an anti-Bolshevik Lettish defence force, but on Dec. 7 consented to the creation of a Baltic Landeswehr.
One-quarter of the opposing Bolshevik army were Letts; Gen.
For early history see Lithuanians And Letts (16.789), also Poland (21.902).
The population of Livonia, which was 621,600 in 1816, reached 1,000,876 in 1870, and 1,295,231 in 1897, of whom 43.4 were Letts, 39.9% Ehsts, 7.6% Germans, 5.4% Russians, 2% Jews and 1.2% Poles.
In 1186 the emissaries of the archbishop of Bremen began to preach Christianity among the Ehsts and Letts, and in 1201 the bishop of Livonia established his residence at Riga.
The Livs and Letts were as much the prey of the Lithuanians "as sheep are the prey of wolves."
In the first year of the 13th century, the Knights of the Sword, one of the numerous orders of crusading military monks, had been founded in Livonia to "convert" the pagan Letts, and, in 1208, the still more powerful Teutonic order was invited by Duke Conrad of Masovia to settle in the district of Kulm (roughly corresponding to modern East Prussia) to protect his territories against the incursions of the savage Prussians, a race closely akin to the Lithuanians.
According to nationalities, the population was made up as follows in 18 97: 6, 755,5 0 3 Poles, equal to 64.6% of the total; 1,267,194 Jews, equal to 12.1%; 631,844 Russians (6%); 39 1, 44 0 Germans (4%); 310,386 Lithuanians and Letts (3%); with a few thousands each of Tatars, Bohemians, Rumanians, and Esthonians, and a few Gypsies and Hungarians.
The Esths, Ehsts or Esthonians, who call themselves Tallopoeg and Maamees, are known to the Russians as Chukhni or Chukhontsi, to the Letts as Iggauni, and to the Finns as Virolaiset.
The population, which was 102,590 in 1867, increased to 168,728 in 1881 and to 282,943 in 1897, so that Riga now ranks seventh in the empire in order of population: 47% of the inhabitants are Germans, 25% Russians and 23% Letts, with a small admixture of Esthonians, Jews, etc. The city has a commercial school (1903), a municipal library, the Dom museum, an art museum with picture gallery (1904-1905), technical and theological middle schools and a pilot and navigation school.
In 1863 laws were issued to enable the Letts, who form the bulk of the population, to acquire the farms which they held, and special banks were founded to help them.
Of the whole, 79% are Letts, 8% Germans, 1.7 7c, Russians, and 1% each Poles and Lithuanians.