To his pen we owe Lettre a M.
In either class of school, the permission of the bishop (like the French lettre d'obedience of 1849) being sufficient.
He at once began love-making, and in spite of his ugliness succeeded in winning the heart of the lady to whom his colonel was attached; this led to such scandal that his father obtained a lettre de cachet, and the young scapegrace was imprisoned in the isle of Re.
His violent disposition now led him to quarrel with a country gentleman who had insulted his sister, and his semi-exile was changed by lettre de cachet into imprisonment in the Chateau d'If.
The affair ended by his escaping to Switzerland, where Sophie joined him; they then went to Holland, where he lived by hackwork for the booksellers; meanwhile Mirabeau had been condemned to death at Pontarlier for rapt et vol, and in May 1777 he was seized by the French police, and imprisoned by a lettre de cachet in the castle of Vincennes.
Entitled Le Curial, translated into English (Here foloweth the copy of a lettre whyche maistre A.
On the occasion of the Galician outbreak of 1845, when the Ruthenian peasantry massacred some hundreds of Polish landowners, an outbreak generally attributed to the machinations of the Austrian government, Wielopolski wrote his famous Lettre d'un gentilhomme polonais au prince de Metternich (Brussels, 1846), which caused a great sensation at the time, and in which he attempted to prove that the Austrian court was acting in collusion with the Russian in the affair.
In the last year of his life he became acquainted with Mesmer, and published a Lettre sur le magnetisme animal.
He undoubtedly instigated D'Alembert to include a censure of the prohibition in his Encyclopedic article on "Geneva," a proceeding which provoked Rousseau's celebrated Lettre a D'Alembert sur les spectacles.
See Kersaint's own works, Le Bon Sens (1789); the Rubicon (1789); Considerations sur la force publique et l'institution des gardes nationales (1789); Lettre a Mirabeau (1791); Moyens presentes a l'Assemblee nationale pour retablir la paix et l'ordre dans les colonies; also E.
SIMON NICHOLAS HENRI LINGUET (1736-1794), French journalist and advocate, was born on the 14th of July 1736, at Reims, whither his father, the assistant principal in the College de Beauvais of Paris, had recently been exiled by lettre de cachet for engaging in the Jansenist controversy.
The subject was developed later in his Lettre a M.
It is agreed that the idea was suggested when Rousseau went to pay a visit to Diderot, who was in prison at Vincennes for his Lettre sur les aveugles.
In 1758 appeared his Lettre a d'Alembert contre les spectacles, written in the winter of the previous year at Montlouis.
Rousseau revenged himself by printing his clever satire entitled Lettre d'un symphoniste de l'Academie Royale de Musique a ses camarades de l'orchestre.
His Lettre a M.
The archbishop of Paris had published a pastoral against him, and Rousseau did not let the year pass without a Lettre a M.
In the case of organized bodies lettres de cachet were issued for the purpose of enjoining members to assemble or to accomplish some definite act; the provincial estates were convoked in this manner, and it was by a lettre de cachet (called lettre de jussion) that the king ordered a parlement to register a law in the teeth of its own remonstrances.
But in the 14th century the principle was introduced that the order should be written, and hence arose the lettre de cachet.
The lettre de cachet belonged to the class of lettres closes, as opposed to lettres patentes, which contained the expression of the legal and permanent will of the king, and had to be furnished with the seal of state affixed by the chancellor.
See Honore Mirabeau, Les Lettres de cachet et des prisons d'etat (Hamburg, 1782), written in the dungeon at Vincennes into which his father had thrown him by a lettre de cachet, one of the ablest and most eloquent of his works, which had an immense circulation and was translated into English with a dedication to the duke of Norfolk in 1788; Frantz Funck-Brentano, Les Lettres de cachet d Paris (Paris, 1904); and Andre Chassaigne, Les Lettres de cachet sous l'ancien regime (Paris, 1903).
He edited Jean de Joinville's Histoire de St Louis, roi de France (Paris, 1668), and his other works which may be mentioned are Traite historique du chef de St Jean Baptiste (Paris, 1666); Lettre du Sieur N., conseiller du roi (Paris, 1682); Cyrilli, Philoxeni, aliorumque veterum glossaria, and Memoire sur le projet d'un nouveau recueil des historiens de France, avec le plan general de ce recueil, which has been inserted by Jacques Lelong in his Bibliotheque historique de la France (Paris, 1768-1778).
(Julius Klaproth, Lettre a M.
Bailak Kibdjaki, also, an Arabian writer, shows in his Merchant's Treasure, a work given to the world in 1282, that the magnetized needle, floated on water by means of a splinter of wood or a reed, was employed on the Syrian seas at the time of his voyage from Tripoli to Alexandria (1242), and adds:"They say that the captains who navigate the Indian seas use, instead of the needle and splinter, a sort of fish made out of hollow iron, which, when thrown into the water, swims upon the surface, and points out the north and south with its head and tail" (Klaproth, Lettre, p. 57).
The published Lettre de l'abbe Raynal a l'Assemblee nationale (loth Dec. 1790) was really the work of the comte de Guibert.
The following are his most important works: Sur la figure de la terre (Paris, 1738); Discours sur la parallaxe de la lune (Paris, 1741); Discours sur la figure des astres (Paris, 1742); Elements de la geographie (Paris, 1742); Lettre sur la comete de 1742 (Paris, 1742); Astronomie nautique (Paris, 1745 and 1746); Venus physique (Paris, 1 745); Essai de cosmologie (Amsterdam, 1750).
4 Lettre d'Uomini Illustri, p. 112 (Venice, 1744).
Among the older works relating to Herculaneum, in addition to those already quoted, may be mentioned de Brosses, Lettre sur l'etat actuel de la y ule souterraine d'Heraclea (Paris, 1750); Seigneux de Correvon, Lettre sur la decouverte de l'ancienne ville d'Herculane (Yverdon, 1770); David, Les Antiquites d'Herculaneum (Paris, 1780); D' Ancora Gaetano, Prospetto storico-fisico degli scavi d'Ercolano e di Pompei (Naples, 1803); Venuti, Prime Scoverte di Ercolano (Rome, 1748); and Romanelli, Viaggio ad Ercolano (Naples, 181 I).
His chief works are - Lettre a un ami sur la Revolution Francaise; Eclair sur l'association humaine; De l'esprit des choses; Ministere de l'homme-esprit.
But neither Necker nor his wife cared to remain out of office, and in 1787 Necker was banished by "lettre de cachet" 40 leagues from Paris for attacking Calonne.
His most important works, all of which were written in French, are: Lettre sur la sculpture (1769), in which occurs the well-known definition of the Beautiful as "that which gives us the greatest number of ideas in the shortest space of time"; its continuation, Lettre sur les desirs (1770); Lettre sur l'homme et ses rapports (1772), in which the "moral organ" and the theory of knowledge are discussed; Sopyle (1778), a dialogue on the relation between the soul and the body, and also an attack on materialism; Aristee (1779), the "theodicy" of Hemsterhuis, discussing the existence of God and his relation to man; Simon (1787), on the four faculties of the soul, which are the will, the imagination, the moral principle (which is both passive and active); Alexis (1787), an attempt to prove that :here are three golden ages, the last being the life beyond the grave; Lettre sur l'atheisme (1787).
Stahl, and in the posthumous work, Lettre sur les causes premieres (1824), the consequences of this opinion became clear.
CONSUL, a public officer authorized by the state whose commission he bears to manage the commercial affairs of its subjects in a foreign country, and formally permitted by the government of the country wherein he resides to perform the duties which are specified in his commission, or lettre de provision.
It has been used to test the question whether Roman Catholic religious orders could enter India, and in 1870 an attempt was made thereby to challenge the validity of a warrant in the nature of a lettre de cachet issued by the viceroy (Ind.
He was the duke of Monmouth (Lettre de Sainte Foy..
"Marchioly" in the burial register of Saint Paul naturally suggests indeed at first that the "ancien prisonnier" taken by Saint-Mars to the Bastille in 1698 was Mattioli, Saint-Mars himself, sometimes 1 Barbezieux to Saint-Mars, May To, 1694: "J'ai recu la lettre que vous avez pris la peine de m'ecrire le 29 du mois passe; vous pouvez, suivant que vous le proposez, faire mettre dans la prison voiltee le valet du prisonnier qui est mort."
Under the date of 14th July 1527, we find a "grant to Maister Hector" of an annual pension of £50, to be paid by the sheriff of Aberdeen out of the king's casualties; and on the 26th of July 1529 was issued a "precept for a lettre to Mr Hector Boys, professor of theology, of a pension of £50 Scots yearly, until the king promote him to a benefice of loo marks Scots of yearly value; the said pension to be paid him by the custumars of Aberdeen."