LEPANTO,' BATTLE OF, fought on the 7th of October 1571.
Of Spain, who was peculiarly interested in checking the Turks 1 For Lepanto see Naupactus.
The battle of Lepanto was of immense political importance.
Stirling Maxwell, Don John of Austria (1883); and Jurien de la Graviere, La Guerre de Chypre la bataille de Lepanto (1888).
Of free commonwealths there now survived only Venice, which, together with Spain, achieved for Europe the victory of Lepanto in 1573; Genoa, which, after the ineffectual Fieschi revolution in 1547, abode beneath the rule of the great Doria family, and held a feeble sway in Corsica; and the two insignificant republics of Lucca and San Marino.
(On the largest of these lions is cut a runic inscription recording an attack on the Piraeus in the 11th century by Norse warriors of the Varangian guard, under Harold Hardrada, afterwards - s047 - king of Norway.) The arsenal suffered frequently and severely from fires, the worst being those of 1509 and 1569; yet such was the wealth of Venice that in the following year she put upon the seas the fleet that crushed the Turks at Lepanto in 1571.
The fourth Turkish war (1570-1573) was signalized by the glorious victory of Lepanto (1571), due chiefly to the prowess of the Venetians under their doge Sebastian Venier.
Meanwhile, in June 1499, war had again broken out with Venice, mainly owing to the intervention of the pope and emperor, who, with Milan, Florence and Naples, urged the sultan to crush the republic. On the 28th of July the Turks gained over the Venetians at Sapienza their first great victory at sea; and this was followed by the capture of Lepanto, at which Bayezid was present, and by the conquest of the Morea and most of the islands of the archipelago.
On the 7th of October was fought the naval battle of Lepanto, which broke for ever the tradition of the invincibility of the Turks at sea.
The mouth of the Gulf of Lepanto was the scene of the great sea fight in which the naval power of Turkey was for the time being destroyed by the united papal, Spanish and Venetian forces (October 7, 1571).
See Lepanto, Battle Of.
Though now remembered chiefly for invaluable contributions to the theory of music, it is evident that he must have been famous both as a practical musician and as a composer; for, notwithstanding the limited number of his printed works, consisting of a volume entitled Modulationes Sex Vocum (Venice, 1566), and a few motets and madrigals scattered through the collections of Scotto and other contemporary publishers, he both produced and superintended the public performance of some important pieces in the service of the republic. First among these was the music written to celebrate the battle of Lepanto (on the 7th of October 1571).
The threat of the growing power in the Aegean of Venice, which had acquired Cyprus in 1489, at last roused him to a more serious effort; and in 1499 the war broke out with the republic, which ended in 1502 by the annexation to Turkey of Lepanto and Modon, Coron and Navarino in the Morea.
He left it for the last time in 1567, and is said by Hammer-Purgstall to have been present at Lepanto in 1571.
He took part in the battle of Lepanto, but after the loss of Cyprus he was forced to make peace with the Turks and to hand them back his conquests.
The Turks, still reeling from the shock of Lepanto, could with difficulty hold their own 1572-4573.
He was privileged to survive the victory of the Christians at Lepanto; but on the 1st of May in the following year he died, as piously as he had lived.
When Don John of Austria, after the battle of Lepanto in 1571, began to launch on a policy of self-seeking adventure, Escovedo was appointed as his secretary with the intention that he should act as a check on these follies.
Expeditions in the Hejaz and Yemen were more successful, and the conquest of Cyprus in 1571, which provided Selim with his favourite vintage, led to the calamitous naval defeat of Lepanto in the same year, the moral importance of which has often been under-estimated, and which at least freed the Mediterranean from the corsairs by whom it was infested.
In 1803 the Suliot stronghold fell; and he was undisputed master of Epirus, Albania and Thessaly, while the pashalik of the Morea was held by his son Veli, and that of Lepanto by his son Mukhtar.
For several years prior to 1891, coffee, grown principally in the provinces of Cavite, Batangas and Lepanto-Bontoc, Luzon, was nearly as important a crop as tobacco, but between 1891 and 1898 most of the coffee plantations were destroyed by insects and disease.
They are the principal inhabitants of the provinces of Lepanto-Bontoc and Benguet in north Luzon and are numerous in the mountain districts of neighbouring provinces.
In 1568 he was appointed lieutenant-general to Don John of Austria during the suppression of the Morisco revolt in Granada, and he also accompanied Don John during the Lepanto campaign, his function being to watch and control his nominal commanderin-chief, whose excitable temperament was distrusted by the king.
Without regaining that preponderance in the Levant which had been secured after the victory of Lepanto and before the civil wars, Marseilles still took an honorable place there, confirmed by the renewal in 1604 of the capitulations of Francis I.