His father, also named Rainer, the seventh son of the Emperor Leopold II.
When Galen again attacked Holland six years later he was in alliance with Louis, but he soon deserted his new friend, and fought for the emperor Leopold I.
SYNOD OF PISTOIA, a diocesan synod held in 1786 under the presidency of Scipione de' Ricci (1741-1810), bishop of Pistoia, and the patronage of Leopold, grand-duke of Tuscany, with a view to preparing the ground for a national council and a reform of the Tuscan Church.
De' Ricci, deprived of the personal support of the grand-duke (now the emperor Leopold I.), exposed to pressure from Rome, and threatened with mob violence as a suspected destroyer of holy relics, resigned his see in 1791, and lived in Florence as a private gentleman until his death in 1810.
On being liberated he returned to Tuscany, and the grand duke Leopold II, knowing that he was popular with the masses, sent him to Leghorn to quell the disturbances.
In October, Leopold, much against his inclinations, asked him to form a ministry.
But Leopold, alarmed at the turn affairs were taking, fled from Florence, and Montanelli, Guerrazzi and Mazzini were elected "triumvirs" of Tuscany.
In April 1831 William took the command of a Dutch army for the invasion of Belgium, and in a ten-days' campaign defeated and dispersed the Belgian forces under Leopold I.
In 1666 he was appointed teacher of 'medicine at Mainz and body-physician to the archbishop-elector; and the same year he was made councillor of commerce (Commerzienrat) at Vienna, where he had gained the powerful support of Albrecht, Count Zinzendorf, prime minister and grand chamberlain of the emperor Leopold I.
The third son of Count Franz, Leopold or LEO (1811-1888), was one of the leading Austrian statesmen.
Leopold, among other useful works, drained the Val di Chiana, and restored those fertile upland plains to agriculture.
In September 1847, Leopold gave way to .the popular agitation for a national guard, n spite of Metternichs threats, and allowed greater freedom of Lhe press; every concession made by the pope was followed by Semands for a similar measure in Tuscany.
Capponi resigned in October 1848, and Leopold reluctantly consented to a democratic ministry led by Guerrazzi and Montanelli, the former a very ambitious and unscrupulous man, the latter honest but fantastic. Following the Roman example, a constituent assembly was demanded to vote on union with Rome and eventually with the rest of Italy.
Stefano; on the 8th of February 1849 the republic was proclaimed, and on the 2 1st, at the pressing request of the pope and the king of Naples, Leopold went to Gaeta.
In Piedmont the Pinelli-Revel ministry, which had continued the negotiations for an alliance with Leopold and the pope, resigned as it could not count on a parliamentary majority, and in December the returned exile Gioberti formed a new ministry.
His proposal to reinstate Leopold and the pope with Piedmontese arms, so as to avoid Austrian intervention, was rejected by both potentates, and met with opposition even in Piedmont, which would thereby have forfeited its prestige throughout Italy.
Leopold iccepted as regards the constitution, but said nothing about oreign intervention.
Leopold of Tuscany suspended the constitution, and in 1852 formally abolished it by order from Vienna; he also concluded atreatyof semi-subjection with Austria and a Concordat with the pope for granting fresh privileges to the Church.
The Sardinian government had formally invited that of Tuscany to participate in Unionist the war of liberation, and on the grand-dtike rejecting movethe proposal, moderates and democrats combined to ments in present an ultimatum to Leopold demanding that he ~~-~ should abdicate in favor of his son, grant a constitu- ~~ tion and take part in the campaign.
The discontent reached its height when Leopold (Feb.
Shortly afterwards, perceiving that the Turkish cause was now lost, he sought the mediation of Sobieski to reconcile him with the emperor, offering to lay down his arms if Leopold would confirm the religious rights of the Magyar Protestants and grant him, ThOkiily, the thirteen north-eastern counties of Hungary with the title of prince.
Leopold refused these terms and demanded an unconditional surrender.
But the campaign of 1685 was a series of disasters, and when he sought help from the Turks at Nagyvarad they seized and sent him in chains to Belgrade, possibly because of his previous negotiations with Leopold, whereupon most of his followers made their peace with the emperor.
In a well-known note to Charles Leopold Laurillard's Eloge, prefixed to the last edition of the Ossemens fossiles, the " radical de l'etre " is much the same thing as Aristotle's " particula genitalis " and Harvey's " ovum."
And Leopold II., ihr Briefwechsel (1866); Maria Theresa and Joseph II., ihre Korrespondenz samt Briefen Josephs an seinen Bruder Leopold (3 vols., 1867); Beaumarchais and Sonnenfels (1868); Joseph II.
And Leopold von Toskana, ihr Briefwechsel (2 vols., 1872); Briefe der Kaiserin Maria Theresa an ihre Kinder and Freunde (4 vols., 1881); Marie Antoinette: Correspondance secrete entre Marie-Therese et le comte de Mercy-Argenteau (3 vols., Paris, 1875), in collaboration with Auguste Geffroy; Graf Philipp Cobenzl and seine Memoiren (1885); Correspondance secrete du comte de Mercy-Argenteau avec l'empereur Joseph II.
After working under Leopold Gmelin at Heidelberg, and Liebig at Giessen, he spent three years in Paris studying the higher mathematics under Comte.
Had been set free before the dilatory pope put Leopold of Austria under the ban.
A new school of scientific study of Judaism emerged, to be dignified by the names of Leopold Zunz, H.
On the 15th of May 1870 he was appointed minister of foreign affairs in the 0111vier cabinet, and was thus largely, though not entirely, responsible for the bungling of the negotiations between France and Prussia arising out of the candidature of Prince Leopold of Hohenzollern for the throne of Spain, which led to the disastrous war of 1870-71.
Friedrich Leopold, Graf Stolberg >>
This era of repression corresponds roughly with the reign of Leopold I.
(1657-1705), who left the government of the country to two bigoted Magyar prelates, GyOrgy Szelepesenyi (1595-1685) and Lip&t (Leopold) Kollonich (1631-1707), whose domination represents the high-water mark of the antinational regimen.
Between 1678 and 1682 Tokoli waged three wars with Leopold, and, in September 1682, was acknowledged both by the emperor and the sultan as prince of North Hungary as far as the river Garam, to the great relief of the Magyar Protestants.
Leopold, intent on the doings of his perennial rival Louis XIV., was 10th to engage in an eastern war even for the liberation of Hungary, which he regarded as of far less importance than a strip or two of German territory on the Rhine.
But, stimulated by the representations of Pope Innocent XI., who, well aware of the internal weakness of the Turk, was bent upon forming a Holy League to drive them out of Europe, and alarmed, besides, by the danger of Vienna and the hereditary states, Leopold reluctantly contracted an alliance with John III.
This famous charter, which was amplified, under the influence of the clergy, in 1231, when its articles were placed under the guardianship of the archbishop of Esztergom (who was authorized to punish their violation by the king with excommunication), is generally regarded as the foundation of Hungarian constitutional liberty, though like Magna Carta it purported only to confirm immemorial rights; and as such it was expressly ratified as a whole in the coronation oaths of all the Habsburg kings from Ferdinand to Leopold I.
1795), the architect, nephew of the poet Thomson, and the erection of Regent Bridge in Waterloo Place (formally opened in 1819 on the occasion of the visit of Prince Leopold, afterwards king of the Belgians) gave access to Calton Hill.
The best modern editions are the Chronique de Robert de Torigni, &c., edited by Leopold Delisle for the Soc. de l'histoire de Normandie (Rouen, 1872-1873), and Chronicle of Robert of Torigni, edited, with an introduction, by Richard Howlett (Rolls Series, No.
Hipler, and others, but their efforts were overshadowed by Dr Leopold Prowe's exhaustive Nicolaus Coppernicus (Berlin, 1883-1884), embodying the outcome of researches indefatigably prosecuted for over thirty years.
Among the latter is the Grosse Markt with a statue of Prince Leopold I.
By the treaty of the eighteen articles, however, concluded at London on the 29th of June 1831, the kingdom of Belgium was recognized, and Leopold of Saxe-Coburg was elected king.