After resisting every attempt of the French court to draw him into the antiHabsburg league, Sobieski signed the famous treaty of alliance with the emperor Leopold against the Turks (March 31, 1683), which was the prelude to the most glorious episode of his life, the relief of Vienna and the liberation of Hungary from the Ottoman yoke.
His father, also named Rainer, the seventh son of the Emperor Leopold II.
When Galen again attacked Holland six years later he was in alliance with Louis, but he soon deserted his new friend, and fought for the emperor Leopold I.
SYNOD OF PISTOIA, a diocesan synod held in 1786 under the presidency of Scipione de' Ricci (1741-1810), bishop of Pistoia, and the patronage of Leopold, grand-duke of Tuscany, with a view to preparing the ground for a national council and a reform of the Tuscan Church.
De' Ricci, deprived of the personal support of the grand-duke (now the emperor Leopold I.), exposed to pressure from Rome, and threatened with mob violence as a suspected destroyer of holy relics, resigned his see in 1791, and lived in Florence as a private gentleman until his death in 1810.
On being liberated he returned to Tuscany, and the grand duke Leopold II, knowing that he was popular with the masses, sent him to Leghorn to quell the disturbances.
In October, Leopold, much against his inclinations, asked him to form a ministry.
But Leopold, alarmed at the turn affairs were taking, fled from Florence, and Montanelli, Guerrazzi and Mazzini were elected "triumvirs" of Tuscany.
In April 1831 William took the command of a Dutch army for the invasion of Belgium, and in a ten-days' campaign defeated and dispersed the Belgian forces under Leopold I.
In 1666 he was appointed teacher of 'medicine at Mainz and body-physician to the archbishop-elector; and the same year he was made councillor of commerce (Commerzienrat) at Vienna, where he had gained the powerful support of Albrecht, Count Zinzendorf, prime minister and grand chamberlain of the emperor Leopold I.
The third son of Count Franz, Leopold or LEO (1811-1888), was one of the leading Austrian statesmen.
Leopold, among other useful works, drained the Val di Chiana, and restored those fertile upland plains to agriculture.
At the same time Leopold ceded Lunigiana to Parma and Modena in equal parts, tn arrangement which provoked the indignation of the in~iabitants of the district (especially of those destined to be ruled ~y Francis V.
In September 1847, Leopold gave way to .the popular agitation for a national guard, n spite of Metternichs threats, and allowed greater freedom of Lhe press; every concession made by the pope was followed by Semands for a similar measure in Tuscany.
Capponi resigned in October 1848, and Leopold reluctantly consented to a democratic ministry led by Guerrazzi and Montanelli, the former a very ambitious and unscrupulous man, the latter honest but fantastic. Following the Roman example, a constituent assembly was demanded to vote on union with Rome and eventually with the rest of Italy.
Stefano; on the 8th of February 1849 the republic was proclaimed, and on the 2 1st, at the pressing request of the pope and the king of Naples, Leopold went to Gaeta.
In Piedmont the Pinelli-Revel ministry, which had continued the negotiations for an alliance with Leopold and the pope, resigned as it could not count on a parliamentary majority, and in December the returned exile Gioberti formed a new ministry.
His proposal to reinstate Leopold and the pope with Piedmontese arms, so as to avoid Austrian intervention, was rejected by both potentates, and met with opposition even in Piedmont, which would thereby have forfeited its prestige throughout Italy.
Leopold iccepted as regards the constitution, but said nothing about oreign intervention.
On the 28th of July Leopold returned to his capital, and while :hat event was welcomed by a part of the people, the fact that ~e had come under Austrian protection ended by destroying all loyalty to the dynasty, and consequently contributed not a little to Italian unity.
Leopold of Tuscany suspended the constitution, and in 1852 formally abolished it by order from Vienna; he also concluded atreatyof semi-subjection with Austria and a Concordat with the pope for granting fresh privileges to the Church.
The Sardinian government had formally invited that of Tuscany to participate in Unionist the war of liberation, and on the grand-dtike rejecting movethe proposal, moderates and democrats combined to ments in present an ultimatum to Leopold demanding that he ~~-~ should abdicate in favor of his son, grant a constitu- ~~ tion and take part in the campaign.
The discontent reached its height when Leopold (Feb.
Shortly afterwards, perceiving that the Turkish cause was now lost, he sought the mediation of Sobieski to reconcile him with the emperor, offering to lay down his arms if Leopold would confirm the religious rights of the Magyar Protestants and grant him, ThOkiily, the thirteen north-eastern counties of Hungary with the title of prince.
But the campaign of 1685 was a series of disasters, and when he sought help from the Turks at Nagyvarad they seized and sent him in chains to Belgrade, possibly because of his previous negotiations with Leopold, whereupon most of his followers made their peace with the emperor.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand's driver, Leopold Loyka, made a wrong turn.