He went to the university of Leipzig as a student of philosophy and natural sciences, but entered officially as a student of medicine.
He laid the foundation of his philosophical system very early in his Metaphysik (Leipzig, 1841) and his Logik (1843), short books published while he was still a junior lecturer at Leipzig, from which university he migrated to Gottingen, succeeding Herbart in the chair of philosophy.
These works were his Allgemeine Pathologie and Therapie als mechanische Naturwissenschaften (Leipzig, 1842, 2nd ed., 1848), the articles "Lebenskraft" (1843) and "Seele and Seelenleben" (1846) in Rud.
Wagner's Handworterbuch der Physiologic, his Allgemeine Physiologic des Korperlichen Lebens (Leipzig, 1851), and his Medizinische Psychologie oder Physiologic der Seele (Leipzig, 1852).
The misinterpretations which he had suffered induced Lotze to publish a small pamphlet of a polemical character (Streitschriften, Leipzig, 1857), in which he corrected two mistakes.
Logik, 1st ed., Leipzig, 1874, 2nd ed., 1880; vol.
Von Hartmann, Lotze's Philosophie (Leipzig, 1888); O.
At Leipzig, GÃ¶ttingen and Halle he studied for four years, ultimately devoting himself to mathematics and astronomy.
In 1815 he settled at Leipzig as privatdocent, and the next year became extraordinary professor of astronomy in connexion with the university.
His doctor's dissertation, De computandis occultationibus fixarum per planetas (Leipzig, 1815), established his reputation as a theoretical astronomer.
These papers are chiefly geometrical, many of them being developments and applications of the methods laid down in his great work, Der barycentrische Calcul (Leipzig, 1827), which, as the name implies, is based upon the properties of the mean point or centre of mass (see Algebra: Universal).
His Gesammelten Werke have been published in four volumes at Leipzig (1885-1887).
Vico als Geschichtsphilosoph and Vblkerpsycholog (Leipzig, 1906); M.
Of Leipzig and 19 m.
Bemuhungen urn die Nachfolge im Reich (Leipzig, 1862); J.
The fullest account of the Revolution is given in Helfert, Geschichte Oesterreichs (Leipzig, 1869, &c.), representing the Austrian view, which may be compared with that of C. Gracza, History of the Hungarian War of Independence, 1848-1849 (in Hungarian) (Budapest, 1894).
Hungary and its Revolutions, with a Memoir of Louis Kossuth (Bohn, 18 54); Horvath, 25 Jahre aus der Geschichte Ungarns,1823-1848 (Leipzig,1867);Maurice, Revolutions of 1848-1849; W.H.Stiles, Austria in 1848-1849,(New York, 1852); Szemere, Politische Charakterskizzen: III.
ADOLF FURTWANGLER (1853-1907), German archaeologist, was born at Freiburg im Breisgau, and was educated there, at Leipzig and at Munich, where he was a pupil of H.
Romanorum regis (Leipzig, 1806).
(Leipzig, 1881), 1125-1200; P. B.
(3rd ed., Leipzig, 1898), 144 f.; J.
-1.523 (2 vols., Leipzig, 1906); and H.
Heiberg (Leipzig, 1880-1881) superseded it.
Educated at Leipzig and Berlin, he became extraordinary professor in 1883 and ordinary professor in 1892 of Egyptology in the university of Berlin, and in 1885 he was appointed director of the Egyptian department of the royal museum.
Arrhenius, Lehrbuch der kosmischen Physik (Leipzig, 1903); (3) A.
Alten Orients, Leipzig, 1856, 124 ff.) and E.
Alten Orients (Leipzig, 1856), p. 124 ff.; E.
(1779-1844) (Leipzig, 1908); P. Kraus, Allgemeine Konservative Monatsschrift, Bd.
Forster's Samtliche Werke appeared at Leipzig in 9 vols.
His correspondence was published by his wife (2 vols., Leipzig, 1829); his Briefwechsel mit Sommerring by H.
Schubring, Historische Topographie von Akragas (Leipzig, 1870); R.
Ruckert (Quedlinburg and Leipzig, 1858); another version of the tale, Lorengel, is edited in the Zeitschr.
Junghaus (Leipzig, 1878); Conrad von Wiirzburg's fragmentary Schwanritter, ed.
Von Maltzan, Reise auf der Inset Sardinien (Leipzig, 1869); E.
(Leipzig, 1909); and " Dolmens, Tombs of the Giants and Nuraghi of Sardinia," in Papers of the British School at Rome, v.
After studying law at the universities of Leipzig and GÃ¶ttingen, he entered the service of the prince of Nassau-Weilburg, whom in 1791 he represented at the imperial diet.
(Stuttgart and Leipzig, 1823-1845).
(Heidelberg and Leipzig, 1856-1857), was written by his brother Heinrich von Gagern.
1903); Pichler, Chronik des Hof-und National Theaters in Mannheim (Mannheim, 1879); Landgraf, Mannheim and Ludwigshafen (Zurich, 1890); Die wirthschaftliche Bedeutung Mannheims, published by the Mannheim Chamber of Commerce (Mannheim, 1905); the Forschungen zur Geschichte Mannheims and der Pfalz, published by the Mannheimer Altertumsverein (Leipzig, 1898); and the annual Chronik der Hauptstadt Mannheim (1901 seq.).
Von Ranke, Geschichte der romanischen and germanischen Volker, 1 4941.514 (Leipzig, 1874); R.
He was then appointed to the ordinary chair of mathematics successively at Basel (1863), Tubingen (1865) and Leipzig (1868).
See Lives by Becher (Berlin, 1894) and Pagel (Leipzig, 1906); Rudolf Virchow als Patholog by Marchand (Munich, 1902); Rudolf Virchow als Arzt by Ebstein (Stuttgart, 1903); Geddchtnisrede auf R.
Virchow (Berlin, 1903); and Briefe Virchows an seine Eltern 1839-1864, by Marie Rabl (Leipzig, 1907).
He began his screntific studies at Leipzig, but afterwards went to Berlin.
In Germany a few Cartesian lecturers taught at Leipzig and Halle, but the system took no root, any more than in Switzerland, where it had a brief reign at Geneva after 1669.
Six editions of the Opera philosophica appeared at Amsterdam between 1650 and 1678; a twovolume edition at Leipzig in 1843; there are also French editions, euvres philosophiques, by A.
Cantor, Vorlesungen itber die Geschichte der Mathematik (Leipzig, 1894-1901); Sir Michael Foster, Hist.
In 1869 and 1871 he was president of the first and second Jewish Synods at Leipzig and Augsburg.
(Leipzig, 1889); K.
(Strassburg and Bonn, 1893-1896), and Die attische Politik seit Perikles (Leipzig, 1884) takes the most disparaging view; E.