De Lapparent, Lecons de geographie physique (2nd ed., Paris, 1898), and W.
In the work just mentioned few details are given; but even the more elaborate classification of birds contained in his Lecons d'anatomie comparee of 1805 is based wholly on external characters, such as had been used by nearly all his predecessors; and the Regne Animal of 1817, when he 1 This was reprinted in 5882 by the Willughby Society.
Yet over and over again his determination of the affinities of several groups even of European birds was disregarded; and his labours, being contained in a bulky and costly work, were hardly known at all outside of his own country, and within it by no means appreciated so much as they deserved '-for even Naumann himself, who gave them publication, and was doubtless in some degree influenced by them, utterly failed to perceive the importance of the characters offered by the song-muscles of certain groups, though their peculiarities were all duly described and recorded by his coadjutor, as some indeed had been long before by Cuvier in his famous dissertation 2 on the organs of voice in birds (Lecons d'anatomie comparee, iv.
Cuvier (Lecons d'anatomie comparee, 1800-1805), and in England by W.
Joubert, Lecons sur l'electricite et le magnetisme (2nd ed., Paris, 1896-1897; trans., not free from errors, by E.
The first, second and third sections of this publication comprise respectively the papers communicated by him to the Academies of Sciences of Turin, Berlin and Paris; the fourth includes his miscellaneous contributions to other scientific collections, together with his additions to Euler's Algebra, and his Lecons elementaires at the Ecole Normale in 1795.
Besides the separate works already named are Resolution des equations numeriques (1798, 2nd ed., 1808, 3rd ed., 1826), and Lecons sur le calcul des fonctions (1805, 2nd ed., 1806), designed as a commentary and supplement to the first part of the Theorie des fonctions.
Orfila's chief publications are Traite des poisons, or Toxicologie ge'nerale (1813); Elements de chimie medicale (1817); Lecons de medecine legale (1823); Traite des exhumations juridiques (1830); and Recherches sur l'empoisonnement par l'acide arsenieux (1841).
His lectures at Fontenoy have been published in two volumes entitled Lecons de psychologie appliquee a l'education, and Lecons de morale; those delivered at the Sorbonne are collected in L'Education dans l'universite (1892).
For accounts of Ray's system of classification, see Cuvier, Lecons hist.
Benedictus, De observatione in pestilentia, 4to (Venice, 1 493); Nicolaus Massa, De febre pestilentia, 4to (Venice, 1556, &c.); Fioravanti, Regimento della peste, 8vo, Venice, 1556; John Woodall, The Surgeon's Mate, folio (London, 1639); Van Helmont, Tumulus pestis, 8vo (Cologne, 1644, &c.); Muratori, Trattato del governo della peste, Modena, 1714; John Howard, An Account of Lazarettoes in Europe, &c., 4to (London, 1789); Patrick Russell, A Treatise of the Plague, 4to (London, 1791); Thomas Hancock, Researches into the Laws of Pestilence, 8vo (London, 1821); Fodere, Lecons sur les epide'mies, &c., 4 vols.
Among his books are Chimie medicale (1864), Lecons ele'mentaires de chimie moderne (1867), Theorie des atomes dans la conception du monde (1874), La Theorie atomique (1878), Progres de l'industrie des matieres colorantes artificielles (1876) and Traiti de chimie biologique (1880-1885).
3 Lecons de calcul des variations (Paris, 1861).