This Messianic expectation had been a fermenting leaven since the great days of Judas Maccabaeus.
A-, without; 0,un, leaven), a name given by the Orthodox Eastern to the Western or Latin Church, because of the latter's use of unleavened bread in the Eucharist, a practice which arose in the 9th century and is also observed by Armenians and Maronites following the Jewish passover custom.
PASSOVER, a Hebrew spring festival, celebrated by the Jews in commemoration of the exodus from Egypt by a family feast in the home on the first evening, and by abstaining from leaven during the seven days of the feast.
No leaven shall be eaten with it for seven days, and bread of affliction shall be eaten because they came forth from Egypt in haste.
On the other hand, the absence of leaven may recall primitive practice before its introduction as a domestic luxury; sacral rites generally keep alive primitive custom.
There was also associated in the Hebrew mind a connexion of impurity and corruption with the notion of leaven which was tabu in all sacrifice (Exod.
Priesthood, Oil of Unction, the Offering of the Body and Blood of Christ, Absolution, The Holy Leaven, the Signation of the life-giving Cross.
The "Holy Leaven" is reputed to be a part of the original bread of the first Eucharist, brought by Addai and Mari' and maintained ever since in the Church; it is used in the confection of the Eucharistic wafers, which are rather thicker than those used in the Western Church.
It began to bear fruit in Christian mysticism, and to diffuse a new magical leaven through the worship of the church.
Its realization was delayed by the wars that devastated the country down to the overthrow of Maximilian, but the leaven was at work, and with the return of peace a marked increase in the number of primary and secondary schools was noted.
The soft inner bark is occasionally used in Siberia as a ferment, by hunters and others, being boiled and mixed with rye-meal, and buried in the snow for a short time, when it is employed as a substitute for other leaven, and in making the sour liquor called " quass."
The new leaven had begun to communicate its subtle influence to the universities, but was working chiefly in secret and even to a great extent unconsciously to those affected by it, for many were in profound ignorance of the ultimate tendency of their own opinions.
Chalcedon was repudiated afresh, union with the Jacobites instituted, use of water and leaven in the Eucharist condemned, the five days' preliminary fast before Lent restored, Saturday as well as Sunday made a day of feasting and synaxis, any but the orthodox excluded from the Maundy Thursday Communion, the first communion of the new catechumens; union of the Baptismal and Christmas feasts was restored, and the faithful forbidden to fast on Fridays from Easter until Pentecost.
Some parables (the leaven, the mustard seed) suggest a gradual progressive realization of His kingdom.
Regarded simply as mirroring the past, few, if any, remains of Christian antiquity present us with so vivid a picture of the working of men's minds under the influence of the new leaven which had entered into the world" (Hort, Clem.
17), the use of leaven in sacrifices (25a), the retention of the sacrifice until the morning (25b), 5 and the seething of a kid in its mother's milk (26b); and en j oins the observance of the three annual feasts and the Sabbath (18a, 21-23), and the dedication of the first-born (19, 20, derived from xiii.
They prohibit (1) the worship of other gods, (2) the making of molten images; they ordain (3) the observance of the feast of unleavened bread, (4) the feast of weeks, (5) the feast of ingathering at the end of the year, and (6) the seventhday rest; to Yahweh belong (7) the firstlings, and (8) the firstfruits of the land; they forbid also (9) the offering of the blood of sacrifice with leaven, (io) the leaving-over of the fat of a feast until the morning, and (r1) the seething of a kid in its mother's milk.
He was weary of the rabies theologorum, and dreamed that the evangelical leaven, if tolerated, would purify the church's life and doctrine.
Ritschl discerned in it the leaven of the Fraticelli or Franciscan Tertiaries.
Even when in process of time they did accept the religion of the prophet, they leavened it thoroughly with their own peculiar leaven, and, especially, deprived it of the practical political and national character which it had assumed after the flight to Medina.
By the introduction of a system of statute law, modelled to some extent on that of England, and by the additional importance assigned to parliament, the leaven was prepared which was to work towards the destruction of the indefinite authority of the king and of the unbridled licence of the nobles.
Though the Brahman, who by this time had firmly secured his supremacy over the kshatriya, or noble, in matters spiritual as well as in legislative and administrative functions, would naturally be the prime mover in this regulation of the social 4 Thus, in Berar," there is a strong non-Aryan leaven in the dregs of the agricultural class, derived from the primitive races which have gradually melted down into settled life, and thus become fused with the general community, while these same races are still distinct tribes in the wild tracts of hill and jungle."Sir Alfred C. Lyall, As.
The avoidance of wine, therefore, by Rechabites, Nazirites, Arab dervishes and Pythagoreans, and also of leaven in bread, is parallel to and explicable in the same way as abstention from flesh.
The large majority chose the latter; and thus 1,800 officers were retired on small pensions, and became a dangerous leaven for all subversive activities against the Government.
But for the leaven of Christianity and education which had been introduced into the country it would have reverted to a state of barbarism.
By the 14th century Averroism was the common leaven of philosophy; John Baconthorpe is the chief of Averroists, and Walter Burley has similar tendencies.
He had no difficulties in respect of the teaching and practice of his church, being in truth an ardent Ultramontane in doctrine, as was all but inevitable in his time and circumstances, and his great merit was the instinctive tact which showed him that the system of monasticism could never be the leaven of secular life, but that something more homely, simple, and everyday in character was needed for the new time.
Leaving all detailed descriptions of these schools to special articles devoted to them, it is sufficient here to say that their doctrines were a synthesis of Platonism, Stoicism and the later Aristotelianism with a leaven of oriental mysticism which gradually became more and more important.
It is not so important that many should be as good as you, as that there be some absolute goodness somewhere; for that will leaven the whole lump.