The chief trees of the country are the aspen (Populus tremuloides), the ash-leaved maple (Negundo aceroides), oak (Quercus alba), elm (Ulmus Americana), and many varieties of willow.
The cut-leaved oaks are represented in eastern Asia by several species, of which Q.
The remains of palms (Sabctl and Nipa) as well as of other large-leaved Monocotyledons are preserved.
Or to take the small but welldefined group of five-leaved pines, all the species of which may be seen growing side by side at Kew under identical conditions: we have the Weymouth pine (Pinus Strobus) in eastern North America, P. monlicola and the sugar pine (P. Lambertiana) in California, P. Ayacahwite in Mexico, the Arolla pine (P. Cembra) in Switzerland and Siberia, P. Peuce in Greece, the Bhotan pine (P. excelsa) in the Himalayas, and two other species in Japan.
The ancient broad-leaved Gymnosperm Gnetum has a few surviving species scattered through the tropics of both worlds, one reaching Polynesia.
Several varieties of poplar are found in the upper canyons, and trees of the willow-leaved species in the Humboldt Mountains often attain a height of 60 ft.
Planters appreciate generally the value of broad-leaved and narrow-leaved plants and root crops, but there is an absence of exact knowledge, with the result that their practices are very varied.
Is a zone of dwarf hard-leaved oaks, amongst which occur the Oriental forms Fontanesia phillyraeoides, Acer syriacum and the beautiful redstemmed Arbutus Andrachne.
Their leaves are deciduous, alternate, simple, and generally much longer than broad, whence the term willow-leaved has become proverbial.
Longifolius are broad-leaved species; A.
Trifolium, three-leaved plant, Fr.
In moist regions ferns and mosses, the arum and other broad flat-leaved plants are found.
The characteristic plants are thorny and small leaved, or else bulbous.
The Comanchean system contains the oldest known remains of netted-veined leaved plants, which mark a great advance in the vegetable world.
(Gentiana acaulis) and London pride (Saxifrage umbrosa),, Cerastium tomentosum, Stachys lavata and the beautiful evergreen Veronica rupestris with sheets of bright blue flowers, close to the ground, or by some of the finer grasses very carefully selected, such as the sheep's fescue (Festuca ovina) or its glaucous-leaved variety.
Many of the free-growing soft-wooded plants may also be grown from cuttings of single joints of the young wood, where rapid increase is desired; and in the case of opposite-leaved plants two cuttings may often be made from one joint by splitting the stem longitudinally, each cutting consisting of a leaf and a perfect bud attached to half the thickness of the stem.
Longifolius are broad-leaved sorts; A.
The white and pink forms, with the white and red quilled, and the variegated-leaved aucubaefolia, are some of the best.
- This term is chiefly applied to those summerflowering plants, such as ivy-leaved and zonal pelargoniums, petunias, dwarf lobelias, verbenas, &c., which are employed in masses for filling the beds of a geometrical parterre.
Sow lettuce for succession, with radishes and Round-leaved spinach, twice in the course of the month; and small salads every fortnight.
David, who spent some time in the Albert Edward district, that the creature dwells in the most dense parts of the primeval forest, where there is an undergrowth of solid-leaved, swamp-loving plants, such as arum, Donax and Phrynium, which, with orchids and climbing plants, form a thick and confused mass of vegetation.
The willows reported by some travellers are in reality a narrow-leaved variety of poplar.
On the lower slopes the forest is composed in great part of the long-leaved Pinus liophyllo, accompanied by deciduous oaks and a variety of other trees and shrubs.
Of the elm (Ulmus) there are five common varieties, the two most cultivated being the rough-leaved elm (Ulmus campestris), which is grown in large quantities in England and North America, and the smooth-leaved wych elm (Ulmus glabra).
(4) The region of the beautiful Pinus canariensis, extending to the height of 6400 ft.; here the broad-leaved trees have ceased to grow, but arborescent heaths are found throughout its whole extent, and specimens of Juniperus oxycedrus may be met with.
The region is heavily forested with spruce, pine and broad-leaved trees.
In the lowlands and on the lower mountain slopes the forests are composed chiefly of broad-leaved trees, common among which are the bamboo, the coco and other palms, and the banyan tree; but on the higher mountain slopes pines are most abundant.
P. grandidentata, the large-leaved American aspen, has ovate or roundish leaves deeply and irregularly serrated on the margin.
Ovalifolium (a native of Japan) thrives by the seaside and even in towns; there is a yellow-leaved variety (var.
Of the two-leaved species, sylvestris, the pine of northern Europe, may be taken as a type.
P. mitis, the yellow pine of the northern and middle states of America, is rather allied to the three-leaved section, but the leaves are mostly in pairs.
Among the characteristics of this Miocene flora are the large number of families represented, the marked increase in the deciduous-leaved plants, the gradual decrease in the number of palms and of tropical plants, and the replacement of these latter by Mediterranean or North American forms. According to Heer, the tropical forms in the Swiss Miocene agree rather with Asiatic types, while the subtropical and temperate plants are allied to forms now living in the temperate zone in North America.
In fact, if the foliage alone were taken into account, the Cordaiteae might be described as simple-leaved Cycads.
The vegetation on the western side of the island is much less dense, often appearing as scattered clumps of trees on savannah-like plains rather than continuous forest; while in the south-west, where the rainfall is very scanty, the vegetation is largely of fleshy-leaved and spiny plants - aloes and cacti (the latter introduced), with several species of Euphorbia, as well as numerous lianas, one of which (Intisy) yields india-rubber.
This contains a large variety of hard-wooded and valuable timber trees, including species of Weinmannia (Lalona 1), Elaeocarpus (Voanana), Dalbergia (Vbambbana), Nuxia (Valanirana), Podocarpus, a pine, the sole species in the island (Hetatra),Tambourissa (Amhara), Neobaronia (Harah¢ra), Ocotea (Varongy) and probably ebony, Diospyros sp., &c. The following trees are characteristic of Madagascar vegetation, some of them being endemic, and others very prominent features in the landscape: the traveller's-tree (Urania speciosa), with its graceful crown of plantain-like leaves growing like an enormous fan at the top of a tall trunk, and affording a supply of pure cool water, every part of the tree being of some service in building; the Raphia (rofia) palm (Sagus ruffia); the tall fir-like Casuarina equisetifolia or beef wood tree, very prominent on the eastern coast, as well as several species of screw-pine (Pandanus); the Madagascar spice (Ravintsara madagascariensis), a large forest tree, with fragrant fruit, leaves and bark; a beautiful-leaved species of Calophyllum; and the Tangena (Tanghinia veneniflua), formerly employed as a poison ordeal.
If, as has been suggested by Bower, the strobiloid types are relatively primitive, the large-leaved Pteridophyta must be supposed to have arisenearly from such forms. The question cannot be discussed fully here, but enough has been said above to show that in the light of our present knowledge the main phyla of the Vascular Cryptogams cannot be placed in any serial relationship to one another.
Without entering further into the discussion of these alternative theories, for which the literature of the subject must be consulted, it may be pointed out that on the latter view the strobiloid forms of Pteridophyta would not necessarily be regarded as primitive relatively to the large-leaved forms, and also that the early stages of the origin of the sporophyte in the two cases may have proceeded on different lines.
Nobilis) and spruce; and among the broad-leaved varieties the oak, ash, maple, mahoganybirch or mountain mahogany (Cercocarpus ledifolia), aspen, cottonwood and balsam are the most common.
In Anomochloa there are several nearly equal ribs and in some broad-leaved grasses (Bambuseae, Pharus, Leptaspis) the venation becomes tesselated by transverse connecting veins.
The entire spikelet, or single flowers, are transformed into small-leaved shoots which fall from the axes and readily root in the ground.
The name has been unsystematically given to several other plants; for instance: bastard, Dutch, hemp or water agrimony (Eupatorium cannabinum); noble or three-leaved agrimony (Anemone hepatica); water agrimony (Bidens); and wild agrimony (Potentilla anserina).
Other Bohemian writers whose work belongs mainly to the earlier part of the 10th century are the poets Francis Ladislav Celakovsky, author of the Ricze stolistova (the hundred-leaved rose), Erben, Macha, Tyl, to mention but a few of the most famous writers.