Abbot, though a layman, received the degree of S.
No heathen may tread the outer court.
Why the layman was forbidden a mixture of wool and linen (sha'atnez, Deut.
He further tells us that in the ninth year of his reign he formally joined the Buddhist community as a layman, in the eleventh year he became a member of the order, and in the thirteenth he "set out for the Great Wisdom" (the Sambodhi), which is the Buddhist technical term for entering upon the well-known, eightfold path to Nirvana.
As chivalry directed the layman to defend what was right, so the preaching of the Crusades directed him to attack what was wrong - the possession by "infidels" of the Sepulchre of Christ.
Writers, savants, poets, artists, noble and plebeian, layman and cleric, without any previous concert, or obvious connexion, were working towards that ideal of political liberty which was to unite all the Magyars.
1616), rector of Babworth, and Brewster, a layman of Scrooby in Nottinghamshire.
This position, we see, can be reached by various paths: the priest may become indispensable through the growth of ritual observances and precautions too complicated for a layman to master, or he may lay claim to special nearness to the gods on the ground, it may be, of his race, or, it may be, of habitual practices of purity and asceticism which cannot be combined with the duties of ordinary life, as, for example, celibacy was required of priestesses of Vesta at Rome.
At the Restoration he was favourably received at court, and in 1665 would have received the provostship of Eton, if he would have taken orders; but this he refused to do, on the ground that his writings on religious subjects would have greater weight coming from a layman than a paid minister of the Church.
Beginning with a class gathered from the streets, he opened (1858) a Sunday school in North Market Hall, which was organized in 1863 as the Illinois Street Church, and afterwards became the Chicago Avenue Church, of which he was layman pastor.
As a layman his name was Pierre Guibours.
It includes Dr Andrewes, afterwards bishop of Winchester, who was familiar with Hebrew, Chaldee, Syriac, Greek, Latin and at least ten other languages, while his knowledge of patristic literature was unrivalled; Dr Overall, regius professor of theology and afterwards bishop of Norwich; Bedwell, the greatest Arabic scholar of Europe; Sir Henry Savile, the most learned layman of his time; and, to say nothing of others well known to later generations, nine who were then or afterwards professors of Hebrew or of Greek at Oxford or Cambridge.
When a layman found himself in doubt, his duty was not to consult his conscience, but to take the advice of his confessor; while the confessor himself was bound to follow the rules laid down by the casuistical experts, who delivered themselves of a kind of "counsel's opinion" on all knotty points of practical morality.
The confession of a dying man might be taken by any layman present, and written down in order to be shown to the priest when he arrived.
The king's son Louis, a layman of twenty-one, was made archbishop of Lyons.
The general rule was said to be that all lands within a parish are subject to tithes, and a layman was not allowed to prescribe generally that his lands were exempt; but he had to show a special exemption, and no length of possession was regarded in law in view of the maxim nullum tempos occurrit ecclesiae, although equity did take account of it.
The Chronicle still survived as a medium of conveying information, though more often than not this was now written by a layman; but new stores of information were coming into existence, or rather the old stores were expanding and taking a different form.
They were sent out in twos, an ecclesiastic and a layman, and were generally complete strangers to the district which they administered.
Thus in the story of the good layman Citta, it is an aspiration expressed on the deathbed; 2 in the dialogue on the subject, it is a thought dwelt on during life, 3 in the numerous stories in the Peta and Vimana V atthus it is usually some isolated act, in the discussions in the Dhamma Sangani it is some mental disposition, which is the Karma (doing or action) in the one life determining the position of the individual in the next.
Jesus in the painted window of Mansfeld church, stern of face, sword in hand, sitting on a rainbow, coming to judge; an altarpiece at Magdeburg, in which a ship with its crew was sailing on to heaven, carrying no layman on board; the deeds of St Elizabeth emblazoned on the window of St George's parish church at Eisenach; the living pictures of a young nobleman who had turned monk to save his soul, of a monk, the holiest man Luther had ever known, who was aged far beyond his years by his maceration; and many others of the same kind.
It was considered an act of blasphemy for a layman to pronounce the Tetragrammaton.
But even the entrance upon the very first stage implies something more than, and something fundamentally different from, the life of an ordinary layman, however morally excellent this life may be.
In 1410 Jerome, who had incurred the hostility of the archbishop of Prague by his speeches in favour of Wycliffe's teaching, went to Ofen, where King Sigismund of Hungary resided, and, though a layman, preached before the king denouncing strongly the rapacity and immorality of the clergy.
Thus he may grant indulgences, issue censures, give dispensations, canonize saints, institute bishops, create cardinals - in short, perform all the acts of his jurisdiction, even though he be no more than a layman; but by custom certain of his more solemn acts are postponed till after the ceremony of his coronation, from which his pontificate is officially dated.
858), and upon refusing to resign his office was illegally deposed, while Photius, although a layman, received all the necessary sacerdotal orders within six days, and was installed as patriarch in his place.
Meanwhile the writings and personal example of the pious rector of Llanddowror were stirring other Welshmen in the work of revival, chief amongst them being Howell Harris of Trevecca (1713-1773), a layman of brilliant abilities but erratic temperament; and Daniel Rowland (1713-1790), curate of Llangeitho in Mid-Cardiganshire, who became in time the most eloquent and popular preacher throughout all Wales.
The time had now come for Gregory, who was still a layman and father of two sons, to receive ordination; so he went to Caesarea, where Leontius ordained and consecrated him catholicos or vicar-general of Armenia.
He at once felt that this was his vocation, and the next day, layman as he was, he went up to Assisi and began to preach to the poor 0209).
It consists of a small number of bishops and priests nominated by the tsar, and is assisted by a " procurator," who is a layman, who explains to it the limits of its jurisdiction and serves as the medium of communication between it and the autocrat and secular authorities.
The earlier apologists dispute the natural immortality of the soul; Athanasius himself, in De Incarnatione Dei, §§ 4, 5, tones down the teaching of Wisdom; and the somewhat eccentric writer Arnobius, a layman - from Justin Martyr downwards apologetics has always been largely in the hands of laymen - stands for what has recently been called " conditional immortality " - eternal life for the righteous, the children of God, alone.
Criticism; and a layman, the great Lessing) took the form of " rationalism " within the church - interpreting Bible texts by main force in a way which the age thought " enlightened " (H.
The non-charismatic conception of healing, no longer the "gift" of some layman in the community (1 Cor.
To his mind the convent is not far removed from the church, and as a layman he is not at all inclined to accept the principles of monachism as applying to himself or to square his views of history in accordance with them.
[as layman] (d.
He was at a disadvantage because, being a layman, he could not directly take part in the discussions of the council.
He writes on theological subjects with the detachment of a thoughtful layman, and is witty without being flippant.
Two most interesting provisions, to which the clergy offered no opposition, were: (I) if a dispute arose between a clerk and a layman concerning a tenement which the clerk claimed as free-alms (frankalmoign) and the layman as a lay-fee, it should be determined by the recognition of twelve lawful men before the king's justice whether it belonged to free-alms or lay-fee, and if it were found to belong to free-alms then the plea was to be held in the ecclesiastical court, but if to lay-fee, in the court of the king or of one of his magnates; (2) a declaration of the procedure for election to bishoprics and royal abbeys, generally considered to state the terms of the settlement made between Henry I.
Although a layman he was granted the prebend of Ilfracombe in 1589, and in 15 9 7 he resigned his position at Westminster on being made Clarencieux king-at-arms, an appointment which caused some ill-feeling, and the York herald, Ralph Brooke, led an attack on the genealogical accuracy of the Britannia, and accused its author of plagiarism.
Invested, as society grows more complex, with a sanctity increasingly superior to that of the layman, the priest-king becomes the representative of the community as repository of its luck, whilst, as controller of all sacred forces that bear thereon, he is, as Dr Frazer puts it, " dynamical centre of the universe" (The Golden Bough (2nd ed.), i.
Was compelled to decide that priests who had kept two or more concubines, successively or simultaneously, did not thereby incur the disabilities which attended digamists; or, in other words, that a layman who had contracted two lawful marriages and then proceeded to ordination on the death of his second wife, could be absolved only by the pope; whereas the concubinary priest, "as a man branded with simple fornication," might receive a valid dispensation from his own bishop (Letter to archbishop of Lund in 1212.
The first class hold (1) that oaths are forbidden by the gospel, (2) that capital punishment is not allowed to the civil power, (3) that any layman may consecrate the sacrament of the altar, and (4) that the Roman Church is not the Church of Christ.
Prosper was a layman, but he threw himself with ardour into the religious controversies of his day, defending Augustine and propagating orthodoxy.