Lavoisier was the first investigator to study fermentation from a quantitative standpoint.
He was also the author of Science et philosophie (1886), which contains a well-known letter to Renan on "La Science ideale et la science positive," of La Revolution chimique, Lavoisier (1890), of Science et morale (1897), and of numerous articles in La Grande Encyclopedie, which he helped to establish.
Lavoisier and P. S.
Lavoisier and Laplace, ante, § 1).
He also contemplated a thorough-going reform of the ferme generale, but contented himself, as a beginning, with imposing certain conditions on the leases as they were renewed - such as a more efficient personnel, and the abolition for the future of the abuse of the croupes (the name given to a class of pensions), a reform which Terray had shirked on finding how many persons in high places were interested in them, and annulling certain leases, such as those of the manufacture of gunpowder and the administration of the messageries, the former of which was handed over to a company with the scientist Lavoisier as one of its advisers, and the latter superseded by a quicker and more comfortable service of diligences which were nicknamed" turgotines."He also prepared a regular budget.
With that nobleman he travelled on the Continent; the month of October 1774 he spent in Paris, and meeting Lavoisier and his friends, gave them an account of the experiment by which on the previous ist of August he had prepared "dephlogisticated air" (oxygen).
Lavoisier may be justly regarded as the founder of modern or quantitative chemistry.
Lavoisier adequately recognized and acknowledged how much he owed to the researches of others; to himself is due the co-ordination of these researches, and the welding of his results into a doctrine to which the phlogistic theory ultimately succumbed.
The theory advocated by Lavoisier came to displace the phlogistic conception; but at first its acceptance was slow.
By his insistence upon the use of the balance as a quantitative check upon the masses involved in all chemical reactions, Lavoisier was enabled to establish by his own investigations and the results achieved by others the principle now known as the " conservation of mass."
Lavoisier appears to have assumed that the composition of every chemical compound was constant, and the same opinion was the basis of much experimental inquiry at the hands of Joseph Louis Proust during 1801 to 1809, who vigorously combated the doctrine of Claude Louis Berthollet (Essai de statique chimique, 1803), viz.
Mercury calx was LJ .3 Bergman's symbolism was obviously cumbrous, and the system used in 1782 by Lavoisier was equally abstruse, since the forms gave no clue as to composition; for instance water, oxygen, and nitric acid werev 4), and e-f.
(the " simple acidifiable bases " of Lavoisier), and circles enclosing the initial letters of their names for the metals.
Of great importance is the chemical identity of the diamond, graphite and charcoal, a fact demonstrated in part by Lavoisier in 1773, Smithson Tennant in 1796, and by Sir George Steuart-Mackenzie (1780-1848), who showed that equal weights.
Theoretical speculations were revived by Lavoisier, who, having explained the nature of combustion and determined methods for analysing compounds, concluded that vegetable substances ordinarily contained carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, while animal substances generally contained, in addition to these elements, nitrogen, and sometimes phosphorus and sulphur.
Lavoisier, to whom chemistry was primarily the chemistry of oxygen compounds, having developed the radical theory initiated by Guyton de Morveau, formulated the hypothesis that vegetable and animal substances were oxides of radicals composed of carbon and hydrogen; moreover, since simple radicals (the elements) can form more than one oxide, he attributed the same character to his hydrocarbon radicals: he considered, for instance, sugar to be a neutral oxide and oxalic acid a higher oxide of a certain radical, for, when oxidized by nitric acid, sugar yields oxalic acid.
Berzelius, in 1813 and 1814, by improved methods of analysis, established that the Daltonian laws of combination held in both the inorganic and organic kingdoms; and he adopted the view of Lavoisier that organic compounds were oxides of compound radicals, and therefore necessarily contained at least three elements - carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
Anton Laurent Lavoisier, however, must be considered as the first great exponent of this branch of chemistry.
The detection of carbon and hydrogen in organic compounds by the formation of carbon dioxide and water when they are burned was first correctly understood by Lavoisier, and as he had determined the carbon and hydrogen content of these two substances he was able to devise methods by which carbon and hydrogen in organic compounds could be estimated.
Until 1804 he lived at the Royal Institution in Albemarle Street, London, or at a house which he rented at Brompton, and he then established himself in Paris, marrying (his first wife having died in 1792) as his second wife the wealthy widow of Lavoisier, the celebrated chemist.
With miscellaneous studies, especially with that of chemistry, which, in the new form given to it by Lavoisier, he found "aisee comme l'algebre."
Lavoisier, and prepared to resume his former situation in Berlin.
Lavoisier he made an important series of experiments on specific heat (1782-1784), in the course of which the "ice calorimeter" was invented; and they contributed jointly to the Memoirs of the Academy (1781) a paper on the development of electricity by evaporation.
Darwin's work shows, however, the tendency to connect medicine with physical science, which was an immediate consequence of the scientific discoveries of the end of the 18th century, when Priestley and Cavendish in England exercised the same influence as Lavoisier in France.
It was the concepts derived from the experimental methods of Harvey, Lavoisier, Liebig, Claude Bernard, Helmholtz, Darwin, Pasteur, Lister and others which, directly or indirectly, trained the eyes of clinicians to observe more closely and accurately; and not of clinicians only, but also of pathologists, such as Matthew Baillie, Cruveilhier, Rokitansky, Bright, Virchowto name but a few of those who, with (as must be admitted) new facilities for necropsies, began to pile upon us discoveries in morbid anatomy and histology.
Taking magnesia alba, which he distinguished from limestone with which it had previously been confused, he showed that on being heated it lost weight owing to the escape of this fixed air (named carbonic acid by Lavoisier in 1781), and that the weight was regained when the calcined product was made to reabsorb the fixed air with which it had parted.
This principle more or less prevailed until it was overthrown by Lavoisier's doctrine that oxygen was the acid-producing element; Lavoisier being led to this conclusion by the almost general observation that acids were produced when non-metallic elements were burnt.
He returned to Paris before the end of the year, was well received by his family, and mixed in the cultivated circle which frequented the salon of his mother, among them Lebrun-Pindare, Lavoisier, Lesueur, Dorat, Parmy, and a little later the painter David.
Lavoisier, and the quantitative by N.
Macquer and Lavoisier showed that when gold is strongly heated, fumes arise which gild a piece of silver held in them.
Since the earliest quantitative analyses of sea-water were made by Lavoisier in 1772, Bergman in 177 4, Vogel in 1813 and Marcet in 1819 the view has been held that the salts are present in sea-water in the form in which they are deposited when the water is evaporated.
In 1785 he declared himself an adherent of the Lavoisierian school, though he did not accept Lavoisier's view of oxygen as the only and universal acidifying principle, and he took part in the reform in chemical nomenclature carried out by Lavoisier and his associates in 1787.
The earlier forms of ice-calorimeter, those of Black, and of Laplace and Lavoisier, were useless for work of precision, on account of the impossibility of accurately estimating the quantity of water left adhering to the ice in each case.
ANTOINE LAURENT LAVOISIER (1743-1794), French chemist, was born in Paris on the 26th of August 1743.
In 179r, when Lavoisier was in the middle of all this official activity, the suppression of the farmers-general marked the beginning of troubles which brought about his death.
The attempt was unsuccessful, but in August of the same year Lavoisier had to leave his house and laboratory at the Arsenal, and in November the Academy was forbidden until further orders to fill up the vacancies in its numbers.
In November it ordered the arrest of the ex-farmers-general, and on the advice of the committee of public instruction, of which Guyton de Morveau and Fourcroy were members, the names of Lavoisier and others were struck off from the commission of weights and measures.
Within a week Lavoisier and 27 others were condemned to death.
A petition in his favour addressed to Coffinhal, the president of the tribunal, is said to have been met with the reply La Republique n'a pas besoin de savants, and on the 8th of the month Lavoisier and his companions were guillotined at the Place de la Revolution.
Considerations of weight had long prevented Lavoisier from accepting this doctrine, but he was now able to explain the process fully, showing that the hydrogen evolved did not come from the metal itself, but was one product of the decomposition of the water of the dilute acid, the other product, oxygen, combining with the metal to form an oxide which in turn united with the acid.
The simple nature of the alkalies Lavoisier considered so doubtful that he did not class them as elements, which he conceived as substances which could not be further decomposed by any known process of analysis - les molecules simples et indivisibles qui composent les corps.
In addition to his purely chemical work, Lavoisier, mostly in conjunction with Laplace, devoted considerable attention to physical problems, especially those connected with heat.