He would have liked to organize a big move against the Bolsheviks from the west, but such a move could not be made while the Entente Powers were resolved to keep Germany out, and while they sympathized with all the new organizations hostile to RussiaEsthonia, Latvia and Poland.
-The independent republic of Latvia (capital Riga) was proclaimed on Nov.
Its territory comprises chiefly districts of the Baltic provinces of the Russian Empire, which linguistically or ethnographically belonged to the Letts, whence the name of Latvia as a new nation-state.
Population.-According to the census of June 15 1920 the population of Latvia was less numerous and homogeneous than was anticipated in 1918, amounting in all to 1,515,815 inhabitants, of whom 1,146,554 were Letts and 355,518 belonged to other nationalities (Livonia, 477,839 Letts and 104,091 non-Letts; Courland, 404,- 159 Letts and 71,524 non-Letts; Latgalia, 264,556 Letts and 179,103 non-Letts), the non-Letts thus forming about 25% of the total population.
During 1920 and the first two months of 1921 134,000 returned to Latvia, of which 94,000 entered Latvia from Russia, while only 6,400 left for Russia.
Education, in those parts of Latvia where it was standardized by the Protestant Church and Baltic regime, remained on a higher level than in Latgalia with only 38% able to read.
1919 the Polytechnic Institute of Riga was converted into the Latvia University.
In the territory of Latvia the creation of peasant proprietorship was secured before the war in different ways: (a) on the manorial estates; (b) on the Government estates; and (c) in Latgalia, on the Russian system.
Effects of the World War.-The losses suffered by Latvia from evacuation, war, occupation, invasion and Bolshevik rule almost ruined her beyond hope; the official statistician Skuieneeks estimated in 1920 that it would take 50 years to bring her back to the pre-war level.
Resources.-The natural resources of Latvia are mainly timber and agricultural produce.
It now appeared necessary to the Entente Powers to avert Baltic and German preponderance in Latvia as a consequence of the military situation, and the policy of non-intervention was abandoned in favour of Ulmanis' Government.
But the Ulmanis Cabinet was not as yet the sole ruler of Latvia, the Bolsheviks holding Latgalia, and a Russo-German force under Bermondt-Avalov preparing an advance against the Bolsheviks across Latvian territory, plan adopted at a Riga conference on Aug.
18 the Bolsheviks made peace overtures, and Latvia was prepared to negotiate The Landeswehr, having been the chief instrument of freeing Latvia from the Reds, was reorganized (March 10 1920), and Col.
The Russo-Latvian treaty granted to Latvia: (a) an ethnographic frontier; (b) the restoration of confiscated property; (c) an advance payment of 4,000,000 gold rubles (_ 1,20o,000) on account of the returnable securities; (d) a timber concession of 260,000 ac., in order to assist the peasantry to reconstruct their buildings; (e) amnesty for Latvian citizens; and (1) nonliability for Russian state debts.
Ganetsky, obtained: (a) the disarmament of anti-Bolshevik forces in the territory of Latvia; and (b) favourable transit conditions.
The recognition of Latvia by the Supreme Council at Paris on Jan.
The independence of Lithuania de facto was recognized by Sweden, Norway, England, Esthonia, Finland, France and Poland; de jure by Germany on March 23 1918, by Soviet Russia on July 12 1920, by Latvia and Esthonia in Feb.
The toe of the famous statue of the apostle in St Peter's, Rome, shows marked wear caused by the kisses of pilgrims. In the Roman Church a distinction is made between Latvia, a worship due to God alone, and Dulia or Hyperdulia, the adoration paid to the Virgin, saints, martyrs, crucifixes, &c..