Spurs from the Caucasus and from the Armenian highlands fill up the broad latitudinal depression between them.
As a rule, the streams flow alternately east and west down the intermont latitudinal valleys, until they break through some transverse glen in the range on the northern side of the valley.
Another law appears to distinguish the hydrography of at any rate the great latitudinal valleys of the Arka-tagh and the Chimen valley (north of the Chimen-tagh): the streams flow close under the foot of the range that shuts in each individual valley on the north.
The latitudinal valley that intervenes between the Akato-tagh and the next great range on the south, the Chimen-tagh, slopes for the most part eastwards, from 12,500 ft.
Nevertheless, owing to the fact that nearly all the longer and more important crossings of Tibet and its northern montane region have been made from north to south, or vice versa, that is, transversely across the ranges, and comparatively few from east to west along the intermont latitudinal valleys, the identifications between ranges in the east and ranges in the west are in more than one instance more or less doubtful.
As a result of the wide latitudinal extent of the country there are also marked local variations to be contrasted.
The effects of the great latitudinal range of Sweden on its climate and flora has its parallel to a modified extent in the case of fauna.
The city of Delhi is situated in 28° 38' N., 77° 13' E., very nearly due north of Cape Comorin, and practically in a latitudinal line with the more ancient cities of Cairo and Canton.
This we may call the latitudinal co-ordinate.
Since ZOQ is a right angle, it fellows that the sum of the polar distance and the latitudinal coordinates is always 90°.
Latitudinal Co-ordinate; Altitude or Zenith Distance.
Latitudinal Co-ordinate; Declination or Polar Distance.
Latitudinal Co-ordinate; Latitude or Ecliptic Polar Distance.
The preceding methods apply mainly to the latitudinal co-ordinate.
In the north the chief movements gave rise to the system of latitudinal folding and faulting of the Moroccan and Algerian Atlas, the last stages being represented by the formation of the Algerian and Moroccan coast-outline and the sundering of Europe from Africa at the Straits of Gibraltar.
The seven climates adopted by Idrisi are erroneously supposed to be equal in latitudinal extent.
But though the great morphological features of this latitudinal valley forcibly recall the latitudinal valleys of Tibet, the climatic differences give rise to differences between the basins corresponding to the differences between the mountain-ranges themselves.
The floor of the valley consequently slopes away in both directions, like the Chimen valley between the Akato-tagh and the Chimen-tagh; and in so far as it slopes westwards towards the Kum kol lakes it differs from nearly all the other great latitudinal valleys that run parallel with it, because they slope generally towards the east.
When the altitudes of the intermont latitudinal valleys are compared, the significance orographically of the Chimen valley and of the Kum-kol valley is strikingly emphasized.
Both are much more deeply excavated than all the other latitudinal valleys that run parallel to them, the Chimen valley being 875 ft.