Latitudes and longitudes, and with their aid it is possible to reconstruct the maps.
NORTH CAROLINA, a South Atlantic state of the United States of America, situated between latitudes 33° 5 1 ' 37" (the southernmost point of the southern boundary-35° is the northernmost) and about 3 6 ° 34' 2 5.5" N., and between longitudes 75° 27' W.
It lies between latitudes 45° 32' and 49° N.
In the higher latitudes of the South Atlantic the salinity diminishes steadily and tends to be uniform from east to west, except near the southern extremity of South America, where the surface waters are very fresh.
In width, situated on the eastern slopes of the coast ranges and extending from north to south for 260 geographical miles, between the latitudes 25° 45' and 19° 12' S.
It is generally supposed that man originated in tropical or subtropical latitudes, and spread gradually towards the poles.
In autumn the enclosed seas of high latitudes frequently present a thermal stratification in which a warm middle layer is sandwiched between a cold upper layer and a cold mass below, the arrangement being termed mesothermic (thaos, middle).
It is allied to the European species of shad and pilchard, and, like the latter, approaches the coast in immense shoals, which are found throughout the year in some part of the littoral waters between Maine and Florida, the northern shoals retiring into deeper water or to more southern latitudes with the approach of cold weather.
That part of America between New France and Virginia, or between latitudes 40° and 45° N.
MONTANA, a north-western state of the United States, situated between latitudes 44 0 26' and 49° N., and between longitudes 27° and 39° W.
Quantities can be learned from experience, and from watching individual cases; frequency varies within very wide limits, from reptiles which at most may feed once a week and fast for long periods, to the smaller insectivorous birds which require to be fed every two or three hours, and which in the winter dark of northern latitudes must be lighted up once or twice in the night to have the opportunity of feeding.
MARYLAND, a South Atlantic state of the United States, and one of the original thirteen, situated between latitudes 37° 53' and 39° 44' N.
A narrow strip of cold water runs along the equator, widest to the east and narrowing westward, and separates two areas of maximum which have their greatest intensity in the western part of the ocean, and have their central portions in higher latitudes as depth increases, apparently tending constantly to a position in about latitude 30° to 35° N.
High temperature in the depth may be taken to mean descending water, just as high atmospheric pressure means descending air, and hence it would seem that the slow vertical movement of water in the Pacific reproduces to some extent the phenomena of the " doldrums " and " horse latitudes," with this difference, that the centres of maximum intensity lie off the east of the land instead of the west as in the case of the continents.
Between the Kuro Siwo and the Asiatic coast a band of cold water, with a slight movement to the southward, known as the Oya Siwo, forms the analogue of the " Cold Wall " of the Atlantic. In the higher latitudes of the South Pacific the surface movement forms part of the west wind-drift of the Roaring Forties.
The brilliant theories of the palaeobotanist, Oswald Heer, as to the extension of a sub-tropical climate to Europe and even to extreme northern latitudes in Tertiary time, which have appealed to the imagination and found their way so widely into literature, are now challenged by J.
On the Pacific coast the belt of calms, known as the northern horse latitudes, crosses the northern parts of Lower California and Sonora, which accounts for their extreme aridity.
WEST VIRGINIA, the north-westernmost of the so-called Southern states of the United States of America, lying between latitudes 37° 10' and 40° 40' N., and longitudes 77° 40' and 82° 40' W.
In temperate latitudes the climate is generally such as to necessitate in dwellings during a great portion of the year a temperature warmer than that out of doors.
The temperature and rainfall are governed by conditions different from those in corresponding latitudes of the northern hemisphere..
The corresponding latitudes of western Europe, because of the prevailing westerly winds, chilled in crossing the Andes.
During July, which is the coldest month in southern latitudes, one-half of Australia has a mean temperature ranging from 45° to 61°, and the other half from 62° to 80°.
The isothermals of mean surface temperature in the South Atlantic are in the lower latitudes of an cn- shape, temperatures being higher on the American than on the African side.
In latitudes south of 30 S.
The summers are hot, though short in the northern latitudes, the maximum of summer heat being comparatively little less than that observed in the tropical countries farther south.
They are thus developed in nearly the same latitudes and in the same months as those of the Indian Sea, though their progress is in a different direction.
The young shoots are also given to oxen in the long winters of those northern latitudes, when other green fodder is hard to obtain.
OHIO, a north central state of the United States of America, lying between latitudes 38° 27' and 41° 57' N.
In northern and temperate latitudes where insects disappear in the winter, species of Argyopidae like Aranea diademata, live only for a single season.
Cotton is very widely cultivated throughout the world, being grown on a greater or less scale as a commercial crop in almost every country included in the broad belt between latitudes 43° N.
Latitudes from the observations of travellers may generally be trusted, but longitudes should be accepted with caution; for so competent an observer as Captain Speke placed the capital of Uganda in longitude 32° 44' E., when its true longitude as determined by more trustworthy observations is 32° 26' E., an error of 18'.
Within the southern monsoon region there is a gradual transition to the northwest monsoon of New Guinea in low latitudes, and in higher latitudes to the north-east wind of the Queensland coast.
The bear family is widely distributed, being found in every quarter of the globe except Australia, and in all climates, from the highest northern latitudes yet reached by man to the warm regions of India and Malaya.
They are often carried on floating ice to great distances, and to more southern latitudes than their own, no fewer than twelve Polar bears having been known to reach Iceland in this way during one winter.
The herring inhabiting the corresponding latitudes of the North Pacific is another species, but most closely allied to that of the eastern hemisphere.
As a result there is a remarkable community of resemblance of plant and animal life in the high northern latitudes of North America and Eurasia.
IOWA, a north central state of the United States, situated between latitudes 40° 36' and 43° 30' N.
In 10° N., and in high latitudes it is also small, 5.2° F.
As the Arctic Basin is shut off from the North Atlantic by ridges rising to within 300 fathoms of the surface and from the Pacific by the shallow shelf of the Bering Sea, and as the ice-laden East Greenland and Labrador currents consist of fresh surface water which cannot appreciably influence the underlying mass, the Arctic region has no practical effect upon the bottom temperature of the three great oceans, which is entirely dominated by the influence of the Antarctic. The existence of deep-lying and extensive rises or ridges in high southern latitudes has been indicated by the deep-sea temperature observations of Antarctic expeditions.
Waves and tidal currents produce their full effects in that region, and in high latitudes the effect of transport of materials by ice is very important; while in the warm water of the tropics the reefbuilding animals and plants (corals and calcareous algae) carry on their work most effectively there.
Shore Deposits are the product of the waste of the land arranged and bedded by the action of currents or tidal streams. On the rocky coast of high latitudes blocks of stone detached by frost fall on the beach and becoming embedded in ice during winter are often drifted out to sea and so carry the shore deposits to some distance from the land.
Dittmar's analysis of the " Challenger " samples indicated an excess of oxygen in the surface water of high southern latitudes and a deficiency at depths below 50 fathoms.