1919; (c) districts of the province of Vitebsk, called Latgalia, 5,290 sq.
Population.-According to the census of June 15 1920 the population of Latvia was less numerous and homogeneous than was anticipated in 1918, amounting in all to 1,515,815 inhabitants, of whom 1,146,554 were Letts and 355,518 belonged to other nationalities (Livonia, 477,839 Letts and 104,091 non-Letts; Courland, 404,- 159 Letts and 71,524 non-Letts; Latgalia, 264,556 Letts and 179,103 non-Letts), the non-Letts thus forming about 25% of the total population.
Education, in those parts of Latvia where it was standardized by the Protestant Church and Baltic regime, remained on a higher level than in Latgalia with only 38% able to read.
Religion.-Seventy-five per cent at least of the Letts are Protestants, but there is a Catholic majority in Latgalia and a number of Greek Orthodox among the Letts.
(a) The large landowners, owning about 1,899 estates (of these 310 were in Latgalia), mostly Baits and gentry (" Baltic barons "), were expropriated (Land Act, Sept.
16 1920); (b) about 40,000 owners of small holdings, averaging from 26 to 150 ac., formed the backbone of the Lettish middle class, and the liberal professions (nicknamed the " grey barons ") were partly supported by about 10,000 tenants of small farms; (c) the owners of very small holdings in Latgalia and Courland numbered some 10,600.
In the territory of Latvia the creation of peasant proprietorship was secured before the war in different ways: (a) on the manorial estates; (b) on the Government estates; and (c) in Latgalia, on the Russian system.
But the Ulmanis Cabinet was not as yet the sole ruler of Latvia, the Bolsheviks holding Latgalia, and a Russo-German force under Bermondt-Avalov preparing an advance against the Bolsheviks across Latvian territory, plan adopted at a Riga conference on Aug.
Dvinsk was taken by the Poles, and Rezhitsa (the main town of Latgalia) by the Landeswehr, who advanced to Rozhanova.