Lassalle, Die Philosophie Herakleitos, p. 126.
To appreciate the significance of the doctrines of Heraclitus, it must be borne in mind that to Greek philosophy the sharp distinction between subject and object which pervades modern thought was foreign, a consideration which suggests the conclusion that, while it is a great mistake to reckon Heraclitus with the materialistic cosmologists of the Ionic schools, it is, on the other hand, going too far to treat his theory, with Hegel and Lassalle, as one of pure Panlogism.
Lassalle, Die Philosophie Herakleitos' des Dunklen (Berlin, 1858; 2nd ed., 1892), which, however, is too strongly dominated by modern Hegelianism; Paul Schuster, Heraklit von Ephesus (Leipzig, 1873); Bernays, Die heraklitischen Briefe (Berlin, 1869); T.
FERDINAND LASSALLE (1825-1864), German socialist, was born at Breslau on the 11th of April 1825, of Jewish extraction.
Lassalle attached himself to the cause of the countess, whom he believed to have been outrageously wronged, made special study of law, and, after bringing the case before thirty-six tribunals, reduced the powerful count to a compromise on terms most favourable to his client.
The process, which lasted ten years, gave rise to not a little scandal, especially that of the Cassettengeschichte which pursued Lassalle all the rest of his life.
Lassalle, accused of moral complicity, was acquitted on appeal.
Till 1859 Lassalle resided mostly in the Rhine country, prosecuting the suit of the countess, finishing the work on Heraclitus, which was not published till 1858, taking little part in political agitation, but ever a helpful friend of the working men.
Lassalle, a democrat of the most advanced type, saw that an opportunity had come for asserting a third great cause - that of the working men - which would outflank the liberalism of the middle classes, and might even command the sympathy of the government.
Lassalle flung himself into the career of agitator with his accustomed vigour.
While posing as the messiah of the poor, Lassalle was a man of decidedly fashionable and luxurious habits.
The lady was imprisoned in her own room, and soon, apparently under the influence of very questionable pressure, renounced Lassalle in favour of another admirer, a Wallachian, Count von Racowitza.
Lassalle sent a challenge both to the lady's father and her betrothed, which was accepted by the latter.
At the Carouge, a suburb of Geneva, the meeting took place on the morning of August 28, 1864, when Lassalle was mortally wounded, and he died on the 31st of August.
Lassalle did not lay claim to any special originality as a socialistic thinker, nor did he publish any systematic statement of his views.
Lassalle held that the co-operative schemes of SchulzeDelitzsch on the principle of " self-help " were utterly inadequate, for the obvious reason that the working classes were destitute of capital.
In short, Lassalle accepted the orthodox political economy to show that the inevitable operation of its laws left no hope for the working classes, and that no remedy could be found but by abolishing the conditions in which these laws had their validity - in other words, by abolishing the present relations of labour and capital altogether.
The aim of Lassalle, then, was to organize the working classes into a great political power, which in the way thus indicated, by peaceful resolute agitation, without violence or insurrection, might attain the goal of productive association.
The best biography of Lassalle is H.
Oncken's Lassalle (Stuttgart, 1904); another excellent work on his life and writings is George Brandes's Danish work, Ferdinand Lassalle (German translation, 4th ed., Leipzig, 1900).
Aaberg, Ferdinand Lassalle (Leipzig, 1883); C. v.
Plener, Lassalle (Leipzig, 1884); G.
Meyer, Lassalle als Sozialokonom (Berlin, 1894); Brandt, F.
Lassalles sozialiikonomische A nschauungen and praktische" Vorschlage (Jena, 1895); Seilliere, Etudes sur Ferdinand Lassalle (Paris, 1897); E.
Lassalle and seine Bedeutung fiir die Arbeiterklasse (Berlin, 1904).
Lassalle, by Helene von Racowitza, a very strange book; Enthiillungen fiber das tragische Lebensende F.
Yet there is reason to doubt the view of Hegel and Lassalle that Heraclitus recognized the fundamental distinction of subject and object and the relations of mind and matter.
In 1870 he and Liebknecht were the only members who did not vote the extraordinary subsidy required for the war with France; the followers of Lassalle, on the other hand, voted for the government proposals.
Lassalle) represent the Stoics as merely diluting and distorting Heracliteanism.
There is no more curious episode in German history than the success with which Bismarck acquired the services of many of the men of 1848, but Liebknecht remained faithful to his principles and resigned his editorship. He became a member of the Arbeiterverein, and after the death of Ferdinand Lassalle he was the chief mouthpiece in Germany of Karl Marx, and was instrumental in spreading the influence of the newlyfounded International.