Finns, or Lapps, in N.
A number of Lapps usually encamp in the neighbouring Tromsdal during summer.
Inland in 68° 20' N., and two Lapps of his expedition went still farther on skis, to a point nearly under 45° W.
Quatrefages classes them, together with the Voguls, as two families of the Ugrian sub-branch, this last, together with the Sabmes (Lapps), forming part of the Ugrian.
As late as 1230 human sacrifices were still being offered up in Prussia and Lithuania, and, in spite of all the efforts of the Teutonic Knights, idolatrous practices still lingered amongst the people, while amongst the Lapps, though successful missions had been inaugurated as early as 1335, Christianity cannot be said to have become the dominant religion till at least two centuries later.
Reindeer are domesticated by the Lapps and other nationalities of northern Europe and Asia, to whom these animals are all-important.
It has, however, been contended that a system of primitive runes existed whence some at least of the later runes were borrowed, and the ownership marks of the Lapps, who have no knowledge of reading and writing, have been regarded as borrowed from these early Teutonic runes.
They probably found the Lapps in possession of the country.
Originally nomads (hunters and fishers), all the Finnic people except the Lapps and Ostyaks have long yielded to the influence of civilization, and now everywhere lead settled lives as herdsmen, agriculturists, traders, &c. Physically the Finns (here to be distinguished from the Swedish-speaking population, who retain their Scandinavian qualities) are a strong, hardy race, of low stature, with almost round head, low forehead, flat features, prominent cheek bones, eyes mostly grey and oblique (inclining inwards), short and flat nose, protruding mouth, thick lips, neck very full and strong, so that the occiput seems flat and almost in a straight line with the nape; beard weak and sparse, hair no doubt originally black, but, owing to mixture with other races, now brown, red and even fair; complexion also somewhat brown.
Below Stora Lule lake the river forms the Harsprang (hare's leap; Njuommelsaska of the Lapps), the largest and one of the finest cataracts in Europe.
The Lapps moreover retain their distinctive dress.
The Lapps own upwards of 230000 head of reindeer.
In such cases the priest often makes protracted journeys from farm to farm through his parish, and on certain occasions the congregation at his church will include many, both Swedes and Lapps, who have travelled perhaps for several days in order to be present.
But now, when everything depended on a concentration of forces, Charles's imprudent assumption of the title of " King of the Lapps of Nordland," which people properly belonged to the Danish Crown, involved him in another war with Denmark, a war known in Scandinavian history as the war of Kalmar because the Swedish fortress of Kalmar was the chief theatre of hostilities.