Finns, or Lapps, in N.
A number of Lapps usually encamp in the neighbouring Tromsdal during summer.
Inland in 68° 20' N., and two Lapps of his expedition went still farther on skis, to a point nearly under 45° W.
Quatrefages classes them, together with the Voguls, as two families of the Ugrian sub-branch, this last, together with the Sabmes (Lapps), forming part of the Ugrian.
As late as 1230 human sacrifices were still being offered up in Prussia and Lithuania, and, in spite of all the efforts of the Teutonic Knights, idolatrous practices still lingered amongst the people, while amongst the Lapps, though successful missions had been inaugurated as early as 1335, Christianity cannot be said to have become the dominant religion till at least two centuries later.
Reindeer are domesticated by the Lapps and other nationalities of northern Europe and Asia, to whom these animals are all-important.
It has, however, been contended that a system of primitive runes existed whence some at least of the later runes were borrowed, and the ownership marks of the Lapps, who have no knowledge of reading and writing, have been regarded as borrowed from these early Teutonic runes.
They probably found the Lapps in possession of the country.
Originally nomads (hunters and fishers), all the Finnic people except the Lapps and Ostyaks have long yielded to the influence of civilization, and now everywhere lead settled lives as herdsmen, agriculturists, traders, &c. Physically the Finns (here to be distinguished from the Swedish-speaking population, who retain their Scandinavian qualities) are a strong, hardy race, of low stature, with almost round head, low forehead, flat features, prominent cheek bones, eyes mostly grey and oblique (inclining inwards), short and flat nose, protruding mouth, thick lips, neck very full and strong, so that the occiput seems flat and almost in a straight line with the nape; beard weak and sparse, hair no doubt originally black, but, owing to mixture with other races, now brown, red and even fair; complexion also somewhat brown.
Below Stora Lule lake the river forms the Harsprang (hare's leap; Njuommelsaska of the Lapps), the largest and one of the finest cataracts in Europe.
The Lapps moreover retain their distinctive dress.
The Lapps own upwards of 230000 head of reindeer.
In such cases the priest often makes protracted journeys from farm to farm through his parish, and on certain occasions the congregation at his church will include many, both Swedes and Lapps, who have travelled perhaps for several days in order to be present.
But now, when everything depended on a concentration of forces, Charles's imprudent assumption of the title of " King of the Lapps of Nordland," which people properly belonged to the Danish Crown, involved him in another war with Denmark, a war known in Scandinavian history as the war of Kalmar because the Swedish fortress of Kalmar was the chief theatre of hostilities.
LAPLAND, or Lappland, a name used to indicate the region of northern Europe inhabited by the Lapps, though not applied to any administrative district.
The Norwegian portion is thus insignificant; of the Russian only a little lies south of the Arctic circle, and the whole is less accessible and more sparsely populated than the Swedish, the southern boundary of which may be taken arbitrarily at about 64° N., though scattered families of Lapps occur much farther south, even in the Hardanger Fjeld in Norway.
The village consists of wooden cottages with an inn (gdstgifvaregard), a church, and frequently a collection of huts without windows, closed in summer, but inhabited by the Lapps when they come down from the mountains to the winter fairs.
Sometimes there is another church and small settlement in the upper valley, to which, once or twice in a summer, the Lapps come from great distances to attend service.
The Lapps (Swed.
Lapp is almost certainly a nickname imposed by foreigners, although some of the Lapps apply it contemptuously to those of their countrymen whom they think to be less civilized than themselves.'
In Sweden and Finland the Lapps are usually divided into fisher, mountain and forest Lapps.
The mountain and forest Lapps are the true representatives of the race.
In Norway there are three classes - the sea Lapps, the river Lapps and the mountain Lapps, the first two settled, the third nomadic. The mountain Lapps have a rather ruder and harder life than the same class in Sweden.
The sea Lapps are in some respects hardly to be distinguished from the other coast dwellers of Finmark.
The river Lapps, many of whom, however, are descendants of Finns proper, breed cattle, attempt a little tillage and entrust their reindeer to the care of mountain Lapps.
The Russian Lapps are also for the most part fishers, as is natural in a district with such an extent of coast and such a number of lakes, not to mention the advantage which the fisher has over the reindeer keeper in connexion with the many fasts of the Greek Church.
They were formerly known as the "twice and thrice tributary" Lapps, because they paid to two or even three states - Russia, Denmark and Sweden.
The Lapps within the historical period have considerably recruited themselves from neighbouring races.
Wrinkled and puckered by exposure to the weather, the faces even of the younger Lapps assume an appearance of old age.
Among the Lapps, as among other lower races, the index is shorter than the ring finger.
The Lapps are a quiet, inoffensive people.
Superficially at least the great bulk of the Lapps have been Christianized - those of the Scandinavian countries being Protestants, those of Russia members of the Greek Church.
Although the first attempt to convert the Lapps to Christianity seems to have been made in the 11th century, the worship of heathen idols was carried on openly in Swedish Lappmark as late as 1687, and secretly in Norway down to the first quarter of the 18th century, while the practices of heathen rites survived into the 19th century, if indeed they are extinct even yet.
In education the Scandinavian Lapps are far ahead of their Russian brethren, to whom reading and writing are arts as unfamiliar as they were to their pagan ancestors.
Parents are free to disinherit their children; and, if a son separates from the family without his father's permission, he receives no share of the property except a gun and his wife's dowry.3 The Lapps are of necessity conservative in most of their habits, many of which can hardly have altered since the first taming of the reindeer.
The lines in which James Thomson describes their simple life The reindeer form their riches: these their tents, Their robes, their beds, and all their homely wealth Supply; their wholesome fare and cheerful cups are still applicable in the main to the mountain Lapps; but even they have learned to use coffee as an ordinary beverage and to wear stout Norwegian cloth (vadmal).
Linguistically the Lapps belong to the Finno-Ugrian group (q.v.); the similarity of their speech to Finnish is evident though 2 Bertillon found in one instance a cephalic index of 94.
"The Lapps," says Castren, "have had the misfortune to come into close contact with foreign races while their language was yet in its tenderest infancy, and consequently it has not only adopted an endless number of foreign words, but in many grammatical aspects fashioned itself after foreign models."
Agricultural terms, the names of the metals and the word for smith are all of Scandinavian origin, and the words for "taming" and "milk" would suggest that the southern strangers taught the Lapps how to turn the reindeer to full account.
Many of the Lapps are able to speak one or even two of the neighbouring tongues.
When Erik Blood-axe, son of Harold Haarfager, visited Bjarmaland in 922, he found Gunhild, daughter of Asur Tote, living among the Lapps, to whom she had been sent by her father for the purpose of being trained in witchcraft; and Ivan the Terrible of Russia sent for magicians from Lapland to explain the cause of the appearance of a comet.
The Lapps have a dim tradition that their ancestors lived in a far eastern land, and they tell rude stories of conflicts with Norsemen and Karelians.
Meantine the Karelians were pressing on the eastern Lapps, and in the course of the i ith century the rulers of Novgorod began to treat them as the Norsemen had treated their western brethren.
At length in 1326 a treaty was concluded between Norway and Russia by which the supremacy of the Norwegians over the Lapps was recognized as far east as Voljo beyond Kandalax on the White Sea, and the supremacy of the Russians over the Karelians as far as Lyngen and the Malself.
The relations of the Lapps to their more powerful neighbours were complicated by the rivalry of the different Scandinavian kingdoms. After the disruption of the Calmar Union (1523) Sweden began to assert its rights with vigour, and in 1595 the treaty of Teusina between Sweden and Russia decreed "that the Lapps who dwell in the woods between eastern Bothnia and Varanger shall pay their dues to the king of Sweden."
Charles of Sweden took the title of "king of the Kajans and Lapps," and left no means untried to establish his power over all Scandinavian Lapland.
It may be interesting to mention that Lapps, armed with bows and arrows, were attached to certain regiments of Gustavus Adolphus in Germany during the Thirty Years' War.
The Lapps have had the ordinary fate of a subject and defenceless people; they have been utilized with little regard to their own interest or inclinations.
The example set by the early Norwegians was followed by the Swedes: a peculiar class of adventurers known as the Birkarlians (from Bjark or Birk, " trade") began in the 13th century to farm the Lapps, and, receiving very extensive privileges from the kings, grew to great wealth and influence.
They are regularly spoken of as having or owning Lapps, whom they dispose of as any other piece of property.
By a charter of Ivan Vasilivitch (November 1556), the monks are declared masters of the Lapps of the Motoff and Petchenga districts, and they soon sought to extend their control over those not legally assigned to them (Ephimenko).
Other monasteries were gifted 1 The view that the Lapps at one time occupied the whole of the Scandinavian peninsula, and have during the course of centuries been driven back by the Swedes and Norwegians is disproved by the recent investigations of Yngvar Nielsen, K.
The fact is, the Lapps are increasing in numbers, as well as pushing their way farther and farther south.
Tn Sweden the presence of Lapps as far south as Jamtland (or Jemtland) is first mentioned in 1564.
It is long, however, since these abuses were abolished; and in Scandinavia more especially the Lapps of the present day enjoy the advantages resulting from a large amount of philanthropic legislation on the part of their rulers.
In Norway the total number of Lapps was 20,786 in 1891, and in Sweden in 1904 it was officially estimated that there were 7000.
In Sweden the Lapps are gradually abandoning their nomadic habits and becoming merged in the Swedish population.
The majority of the Norwegian Lapps lead a semi-nomadic existence; but the number of inveterate nomads can scarcely reach 1500 at the present day.
The older literature on the Lapps received a notable addition by the discovery in 1896, among the letters of Linnaeus preserved in the British Museum, of a MS. diary of a journey made in 1695 to the north of Swedish Lappmark by Olof Rudbeck the younger.
The inhabitants of the northern districts - nomad tribes of Samoyedes, Zyryans, Lapps, and the Finnish tribes of Karelians and Chudes - support themselves by fishing and hunting.