Russia, even then were subdivided into Ugrians, Permyaks, Bulgarians and Finns proper, who drove back the previous Lapp population from what is now Finland, and about the 7th century penetrated to the S.
(although properly it means a smaller river than elf); the names of towns at their mouths always following this form; treisk (local, properly meaning marsh), jaur (Lapp), afva, lake (provincial Swedish, properly a kind of creek opening from a river).
Farther up, at the head of Langasjaur, is the Stora Sjofall (great lake fall; Lapp, Atna Muorki Kartje), a fall of 130 ft.
At Haparanda and Mattisudden in Norbotten there are special institutions for teachers for the Finnish and Lapp population respectively.
Lapp is almost certainly a nickname imposed by foreigners, although some of the Lapps apply it contemptuously to those of their countrymen whom they think to be less civilized than themselves.'
In the wandering life of the mountain Lapp his autumn residence, on the borders of the forest district, may be considered as the central point; it is there that he erects his njalla, a small wooden storehouse raised high above the ground by one or more piles.
From the mountain Lapp the forest (or, as he used to be called, the spruce-fir) Lapp is mainly distinguished by the narrower limits within which he pursues his nomadic life.
Should the summer be very cool and the mosquitoes few, the Lapp finds it next to impossible to bring the creatures together.
About the end of August they are again let loose, but they are once more collected in October, the forest Lapp during winter pursuing the same course of life as the mountain Lapp.
The shape of the skull is the most striking peculiarity of the Lapp. He is the most brachycephalous type of man in Europe, perhaps in the world.
In Scandinavia laws have been directed against the importation of intoxicating liquors into the Lapp country since 1723.
Lapp graves, prepared in the heathen manner, have been discovered in upper Namdal (Norway), belonging to the years 1820 and 1826.
The Lapp tongue was long ago reduced to writing by the missionaries; but very little has been printed in it except school-books and religious works.
Any Lapp who had attained to manhood could in ordinary circumstances consult the drum for himself, but in matters of unusual moment the professional wizard (naid, noide or noaide) had to be called in.
The contents of the so-called Lapps' graves found in various parts of Scandinavia are often sufficient in themselves to show that the appellation must be a misnomer, and the syllable Lap or Lapp found in many names of places can often be proved to have no connnexion with the Lapps.'
Add to these some 3000 for Russian Lapland, and the total Lapp population approximates to 30,000.
Friis, professor of Lapp in the university of Christiania, has published Lappiske Sprogprover: en samling Lapp. eventyr, ordsprog, og gilder (Christiania, 1856), and Lappisk mythologi eventyr og folkesagn (Christiania, 1871).
Grammars of the Lapp tongue have been published by Fjellstrom (1738), Leem (1748), Rask (1832), Stockfleth (1840); lexicons by Fjellstrom (1703), Leem (1768-1781), Lindahl (1780), Stockfleth (1852).