This was settled in May 1213, and in the new prelate, the papal nominee, Stephen Langton, who landed in England and absolved the king in the following July, the baronial party found an able and powerful ally.
Langton followed his sovereign to Northampton and persuaded him, at least for the present, to refrain from any serious measures of revenge.
Addressing the gathering, Langton referred to the laws of Edward the Confessor as "good laws," which the king ought to observe, and then mentioned the charter granted by Henry I.
When one reflects how active and prominent Langton and other prelates were at Runnim.ede the change is not surprising.
To the original members were afterwards added several remarkable persons, amongst whom were Josiah Wedgwood, Bennet Langton (Dr Johnson's friend), and, later, Zachary Macaulay, Henry Brougham and James Stephen.
RICHARD PACE (c. 1482-1536), English diplomatist, was educated at Winchester under Thomas Langton, at Padua, at Bologna, and probably at Oxford.
Hobart Cust, The Pavement Masters of Siena (London, 1901); Langton Douglas, History of Siena (London, 1902); E.
Other names are Robert of Melun, Hugo of Amiens, Stephen Langton and William of Auxerre.
Reynolds and Bennet Langton; Bee (Oct.
(1207-1213; see Langton, Stephen) he prejudiced his case by proposing a worthless favourite for the primacy and by plundering those of the clergy who bowed to the pope's sentences.
Among the most constant attendants were two high-born and high-bred gentlemen, closely bound together by friendship, but of widely different characters and habits - Bennet Langton, distinguished by his skill in Greek literature, by the orthodoxy of his opinions, and by the sanctity of his life, and Topham Beauclerk, renowned for his amours, his knowledge of the gay world, his fastidious taste and his sarcastic wit.
Frances Burney, whom the old man had cherished with fatherly kindness, stood weeping at the door; while Langton, whose piety eminently qualified him to be an adviser and comforter at such a,time, received the last pressure of his friend's hand within.
WALTER LANGTON (d.
1321), bishop of Lichfield and treasurer of England, was probably a native of Langton West in Leicestershire.
On royal business in 1305, Langton appears to have persuaded Clement to suspend Winchelsea; after his return to England he was the chief adviser of Edward I., who had already appointed him the principal executor of his will.
And even of the restored archbishop, Winchelsea, who was anxious to uphold the privileges of his order, Langton, accused again by the barons in 1309, remained in prison after Edward's surrender to the "ordainers" in 1310.
Langton appears to have been no relation of his contemporary, John Langton, bishop of Chichester.
STEPHEN LANGTON (d.
Upon becoming pope, Innocent summoned Langton to Rome, and in 1206 designated him as cardinal-priest of S.
Immediately afterwards Langton was drawn into the vortex of English politics.
The latter, having confessed that they had given John a secret pledge to elect none but the bishop of Norwich, were released from the promise by Innocent; and at his suggestion elected Stephen Langton, who was consecrated by the pope on the 17th of June 1207.
It was this threat which forced John to sue for a reconciliation; and the first condition exacted was that he should acknowledge Langton as archbishop. During these years Langton had been residing at Pontigny, formerly the refuge of Becket.
Langton encouraged the barons to formulate their demands, and is said to have suggested that they should take their stand upon the charter of Henry I.
Some letters, by Langton and others, relating to the quarrel over his election are preserved in a Canterbury Chronicle (ed.
C. D.) Another English prelate who bore the name of Langton was Thomas Langton, bishop of Winchester, chaplain to Edward IV.
JOHN LANGTON (d.
Langton was one of the "ordainers" elected in 1310, and it was probably his connexion with this body that led to his losing the office of chancellor about this time.
Langton built the chapterhouse at Chichester, and was a benefactor of the university of Oxford.
Innocent, however, seeing a splendid chan.ce of asserting his authority, declared both the elections that had taken place invalid, the first because it had been clandestine, the second because it had been held under force majeure, and proceeded to nominate a friend of his ownCardinal Stephen Langton, an Englishman of proved capacity and blameless life, then resident in Rome.
King John was furious, and not without good reason; he refused to accept Langton, whom he declared (quite unjustly) to be a secret friend of Philip of France, and sequestrated the lands of the monks of Canterbury.
Not only did he agree to receive Stephen Langton as archbishop, to restore all the exiled clergy to their benefices, and to pay them handsome compensation for all their losses during the last five years, but be took the strange and ignominious step of declaring that he ceded his whole kingdom to the pope, to hold as his vassal.
Archbishop Langton, who on assuming possession of his see had shown at once that he was a patriotic English statesman, and not the mere delegate of the pope, besought his master to hold back, and, when he refused, threatened to renew the excommunication which had so lately been removed.
A great landmark in the constitutional history of England was reached when Langton assembled the leading barons, rehearsed to them the charter issued by Henry I.
To Langton and the barons the charter of Henry I.
It is a long document of 63 clauses, in whi4 Archbishop Langton and a committee of the barons had en.deavoured to recapitulate all their grievances, and to obtain redress for them.
The reason that Langton did not descend to details was that the king had already conceded the right of free canonical election and the other claims of the clerical order in a separate charter, so that there was no need to discuss them at length.
At once took the hint; in September Archbishop Langton was sq,spended for disobedience to papal commands, and the charter was declared uncanonical, null and void.
Langton departed at once to Rome, to endeavour to turn the heart of his former patron, a task in which he utterly failed.
The king made one of her uncles, Boniface of Savoy, archbishop of Canterburyit was three years before he deigned to come over to take up the post, and then he was discovered to be illiterate and unclerical in his habits, an unworthy successor for Langton and Edmund of Abingdon, the great primates who went before him.