ETIENNE VACHEROT (1809-1897), French philosophical writer, was born of peasant parentage at Torcenay, near Langres, on the 29th of July 1809.
The Vosges are buttressed on the west by the Faucilles, which curve southwards to meet the plateau of Langres, and by the plateaus of Haute- 20 E 4 F 6 G
Rn, covers eastern France from the Mediterranean to the Vosges, from the Cvennes and the Plateau de Langres to the crests of the Jura and the Alps.
The Seine descends from the Langres plateau, flows northwest down to Mry, turns to the west, resumes its north-westerly direction at Montereau, passes through Paris and Rouen and discharges itself into the Channel between Le Havre and Honfleur.
The chief centres for the manufacture of cutlery are Chfittelerault (Vienne), Langres (Haute-Marne) and Thiers (Puy-de-Dme); for that of arms St Etienne, Tulle and Chttelerault; for that of watches and clocks, Besancon (Doubs) and Montbliard (Doubs); for that of optical and mathematical instruments Paris, Morez (Jura) and St Claude (Jura); for that of locksmiths ware the region of Vimeu (Pas-de-Calais).
The Est, running from Paris via Chlons and Nancy to Avricourt (for Strassburg), via Troyes and Langres to Belfort and on via Basel to the Saint Gotthard, and via Reims and Mezires to Longwy.
At first the Treveri resisted the appeal of Civilis and his Batavi to join the revolt, and built a defensive wall from Trier to Andernach, but soon after the two Treverans, Tutor and Classicus, led their fellow tribesmen, aided by the Lingones (Langres), in the attempt to set up a "Gallic empire."
At Langres he discovered Cicero's Oration for Caecina, at Monte Cassino a MS. of Frontinus.
His early friend and school companion, Adelmann, archdeacon of Liege, wrote to him letters of expostulation on the subject of this report in 1046 and 1048; and a bishop, Hugo of Langres, wrote (about 1049) a refutation of the views which he had himself heard Berengar express in conversation.
As a fortress Besancon forms one of a group which includes Dijon, Langres and Belfort; these are designed to secure Franche Comte and to cover a field army operating on the left flank of a German army of invasion.
The great strategic importance of Dijon as a centre of railways and roads, and its position with reference to an invasion of France from the Rhine, have led to the creation of a fortress forming part of the Langres group. There is no enceinte, but on the east side detached forts, 3 to 4 m.
Under the Roman emperors Metz was connected by military roads with Toul, Langres, Lyons, Strassburg, Verdun, Reims and Trier.
In 1257 the twelve peers were the chiefs of the great feudal provinces, the dukes of Normandy, Burgundy and Aquitaine, the counts of Toulouse, Champagne and Flanders, and six spiritual peers, the archbishop of Reims, the bishops of Laon, Chalons-sur-Marne, Beauvais, Langres and Noyon.
He studied with distinction at the seminary at Langres, and was ordained priest in 1836.
Thirteen of Cicero's speeches were found by him at Cluny and Langres, and elsewhere in France or Germany; the commentary of Asconius, a complete Quintilian, and a large part of Valerius Flaccus were discovered at St Gallen.
In 1618 he undertook the charge of the French Protestant church at Langres, but failed to receive the necessary royal sanction, and early in 1620 he removed to Paris, where he was nominated minister of the Reformed Church at Charenton.
The work was warmly assailed by Drepanius Florus, canon of Lyons, and Prudentius, and was condemned by two councils - that of Valence in 855, and that of Langres in 859.
Through the energy and activity of Hincmar the theories of Gottschalk were condemned at Quierzy (8J3) and Valence (855), and the decisions of these two synods were confirmed at the synods of Langres and Savonnieres, near Toul (859).